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  • 1. BIO 3 Introduction to Biology Instructor:Francisca Herrera

2. Course Syllabus

  • Course Requirements
    • Exams
    • Unit Reviews
    • Journals
    • Forums

3. 4. What is a living thing?

  • What are the characteristics of life?

5.

  • Living organisms are a carbon- and water-based cellular form with complex organization and heritable genetic information.
  • They undergo metabolism, possess a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, reproduce, and, through natural selection, adapt to their environment in successive generations.

6. Properties of life

  • Living organisms are:
  • a carbon- and water-based cellular form
  • Cell Theory
    • Cells are basic structural and physiological units of all living organisms
    • Cells are both distinct entities and building block of more complex organisms

7. Properties of life

  • Living organisms:
  • undergo metabolism
  • Require Energy
    • Cells use nutrients to supply energy and build new structures
    • Metabolism: the sum total of chemical reactions that occur in an organism

Figure 1.2 Acquiring nutrient material and energy 8. Properties of life

  • Living organisms:
  • respond to stimuli
  • Respond
    • helps ensure the survival of an organism
    • allows an organism to carry on daily activities

9. Properties of life

  • Living organisms:
  • possess a capacity to grow reproduce
  • Reproduce and Develop:
    • asexual reproduction (clonal): produce exact replica of themselves
    • sexual reproduction (many strategies):exchange of genetic material between organisms

Figure 1.3A Human Family 10. Properties of life

  • Living organisms have:
  • heritable genetic information through natural selection, adapt to their environment
  • Heredity
    • genome all DNA molecules in a cell
    • adaptation an organisms modification in structure, function, or behavior suitable to the environment

11. Properties of life

  • Living organisms have:
  • complex organization
  • Life Science
    • biology is the scientific study of life

12. Life is complex!

  • There are levels of life:

Figure 1.1 Levels of biological organization Small Molecules Large Molecules Cells Tissues Organs Organ Systems Complex Organisms 13. Life is complex!

  • There is diversity of life:

Animals Fungi Plants Protists Archaea Bacteria 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 Billions of Years Ago (BYA) BACTERI A ARCHAE A EUKA R Y A Figure 1.4 Evolutionary tree 14. Figure 1.6Domain Bacteria Figure 1.5Domain Archaea

  • Prokaryotes:
  • single-celled organisms

15.

  • Eukaryotes:
  • multi-celled organisms

Figure 1.8Kingdom Fungi Figure 1.9Kingdom Plantae Figure 1.10Kingdom Animalia Figure 1.7Kingdom Protista 16. Life is complex!

  • There is taxonomic order to life:

17. Life is complex!

  • There is ecological order to life:

18. Life is complex!

  • Life is interconnected and interdependent:

Heat Heat Heat Chemicals Chemicals Decomposers Consumers Producers Solar energy Figure 1.12A grassland, a terrestrial ecosystem 19. The scientific process

  • To understand such a complex subject, scientists developedthe scientific method :
    • allows scientists to modify and correct their beliefs as new observations and information becomes available
    • if well supported >theory!

20. Core Ideas of Biology

  • Atheoryis a unifying explanation that has been well supported time and time again.
  • There are four major unifying themes in the study of life.

21. Core Ideas of Biology

  • The Cell Theory:
  • All organisms are composed of cells
  • All cells come from other cells
      • Robert Hooke named cells
      • Anton van Leeuwenhoek
      • wee animalcules

22. Core Ideas of Biology

  • The Gene Theory:
  • All organisms have a genome
  • An organisms genes determine what it will be like (secret code!)
      • James Watson and Francis Crick discovered DNA structure

23. Core Ideas of Biology

  • The Theory of Heredity:
  • The genes of any organism are inherited as discrete units
  • Those genes are packaged up inchromosomes
      • Gregor Mendel Mendelian segregation

24. Core Ideas of Biology

  • The Theory of Evolution:
  • Organisms that can respond to the challenges of living will leave more offspring
  • Descent with modification!
      • Charles Darwin living organisms are related to one another

25. 26. Todays Journal Entry

  • Under the activities menu of the virtual classroom, click on theJournalslink
  • Topic 1 Introduction to Biology
    • There are no wrong answers in the journal entries.
    • Answer in complete sentences, in a clear and concise manner.