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  • 1. Unit 1: The Exam! 25/05/2011
    • The exam is1 hour 20 minuteslong and you will have to answerthreetypes of question.
  • This unit is 40% of your total AS psychology and the paper is marked out of 60.
  • There are three compulsory sections.

Cognitive Experiments Social Surveys

  • There are three parts to the Unit 1 exam:
  • Multiple choice questions read them carefully and make sure you read how many responses you have to give.[15 minutes]
  • Short answer / stimulus response. Answer fully.[40 minutes]
  • Extended writing question.[25 minutes]

2. Study or Theory?

  • A study is any exercise where data is collected and analysed.
  • This involves a researcherconducting an experimentof any type. It will have an aim, procedure, results and conclusion.
  • Studies
  • Craik and Tulvin, Godden & Baddely, Milgram, Hofling, Meeus, Reicher & Haslam.
  • A theory is an explanation for a psychological phenomenon.
  • Following a theory researchers will conduct studies in an attempt to support the theory and provide evidence for it.
  • Theories
  • MSM, LoP, Trace Decay, Cue-Dependency, Reconstructive Hypothesis,Agency Theory, Social Identity Theory.

3. APRC: Describing a STUDY

  • Aim what did the psychologist want to do?
  • Procedure what did they do? Who did they do it to? Experimental design? Sampling method? Apparatus?
  • Results what did they find (raw data)?
  • Conclusions so what? What does it mean?

4. GRAVE: Evaluating a STUDY

  • G eneralisability -can the findings be applied to the general population? Think about the sample, methods used & confounding variables.
  • R eliability -can the procedure be replicated and are the findings consistent?
  • A pplications -do the findings have practical value? Think: So what?
  • V alidity -did the study test what it set out to? Can the findings be applied to everyday life (ecological validity)? Population validity (sampling).
  • E thics -with reference to the BPS ethical guidelines, how ethical was the study?

5. Cognitive Psychology

  • Edexcel Psychology: Unit 1

6. ASSUMPTION1: Information Processing

  • Definition :The processing by which information is received by the senses, analysed and responded to. This flow of information is described using the terms input, process and output.
  • Example :

7. Information Processing Decisionmaking Memory 8. ASSUMPTION 2: Computer Analogy

  • The human mind works in a similar way to a computer in terms of information processing.
    • INPUTS information from the senses;
    • PROCESSESinformation in the form of thinking, memory and language;
    • OUTPUTSinformation in the form of decision making, speech and action.

9. 10. ASSUMPTON 3: Active

  • Humans actively organise and manipulate information from the environment. Cognitive or mental processes mediate between stimulus and response.
  • Active processing refers to sets of procedures in which a learner acts on instructional inputs to generate, re-organise, self-explain, or otherwise go beyond the encoding of material.

11. Evaluation of Cognitive Approach

  • Strengths
  • Adopts scientific procedures to develop and test theories.
  • Uses experimental techniques.
  • Models simplify cognitive processes.
  • Allows us to understand mental process that are not directly observable.
  • Weaknesses
  • Tends to ignore biology and genetic influence also ignores individual differences.
  • Provides a mechanistic view of human behaviour.
  • Can such a scientific approachreally tell us about how we think, feel and behave? (Humanistic psychology).

12. Cognitive Psychology

  • Define memory, forgetting, storage & retrieval.
  • Describe & Evaluate MSM Theory
  • Describe & Evaluate LoP theory
  • Describe & Evaluate Cue Dependent Theory
  • Describe & Evaluate Trace Decay Theory
  • Studies in Detail
  • Godden & Baddeley (1975)
  • Craik & Tulvin (1975)
  • Key Issue
  • Eye witness testimony
  • Cognitive Interview

13. Memory & Forgetting The same thing?

  • Memory:
  • The retention and recall of previous experience.
  • Encoding -> Storage -> Retrieval
  • Forgetting:
  • Not been able to remember a fact or event because the memory trace is unavailable or inaccessible.

14. Failure at any of these 3 stages can lead to forgetting. All 3 processes depend upon one another; they areinterdependent . Memory involves three mainProcesses: ENCODING STORAGE RETRIEVAL The process ofchangingsensory input into a memory trace so that it can be stored. The process ofmaintaininga recordof the memory trace so that it can be retrieved in the future. The process ofaccessingandrecovering stored information so that it can be recalled. 15. Multi-Store Model [Theory] 16. 17. AO2 Evaluation of Atkinson & Shiffrin sMulti-store Model of Memory

  • Lots of evidence supporting STM and LTM being separate stores.
  • Problems with concept of STM:
  • - FK shows that semantic as well as accoustic encoding is used.
  • - First-in-first out displacement loss disproved.
  • - Not a single system- working memory with separatesubsystems for visual & spatial and verbal information.
  • X HM learning new skills shows LTM not a single system- separate episodic, semantic and procedural stores.
  • X Rehearsal does not completely explain transfer to LTM.
  • X Primacy-recency effect equally well explained by LOP framework.
  • X Supporting studies use artificial tasks therefore evidence low in ecological validity.
  • X Capacity not well defined; not clear whether it refers to storage or processing.
  • X An additional criticism of the MSM is that it does not take into account the strategies (other than maintenance rehearsal) used to remember information.

18. Craik and Lockhart s Levels of Processing (1972) [Theory]

  • Proposed as an alternative to the PROCESSES involved in storing a memory suggested by the MSM.
  • They suggested that the likelihood of remembering a piece of information depends on how we process it.
  • In this way, memory is a by-product of the information processing that occurs when attending to information.

19. Levels of Processing

    • StructuralShallow
    • What does the word look like?
    • Is the word in capital letters?
    • Phonetic
    • What does the word sound like?
    • Does the word rhyme with ?
    • SemanticDeep
    • What does the word mean?
    • Does the word fit in this sentence?

20. Evaluation of LoP (AO2)

  • Evidence to support- Craik & Tulving (65% sem, 37% p, 17% st). This is incidental rather than intentional learning so ecologically valid.
  • Brain scanning studies show more activity when semantic processing occurring.
  • Improvement on MSM
    • Elaborative rather than maintenance rehearsal;
    • Shows complexity of encoding process.
  • Useful everyday applications- education.
  • X Confounding variables to depth; time, effort, distinctiveness.
  • X Semantic does not always = better
  • X Circular argument
  • X Focuses on processes not stores

21. Craik and Tulvin (1975) [Study]

  • Aim
  • The aim was to test whether words that were processed for their meaning would be better remembered than words that were processed for information about their appearance or sound.
  • Procedure
  • Laboratory experiment- the IV (depth of processing) was manipulated and there was a high level or experimental control in an artificial situation.
  • Repeated Measures- all participants participated in all three conditions: Structural processing, phonetic processing & semantic processing.

22. Craik and Tulvin (1975) [Study]

  • Participants did not initially know that it was a memory test and thought they just had to answer questions on a list of words. In reality, different types of questions were making participants use different levels of processing structural, phonetic and semantic.
  • Words were presented to participants; each word was followed by a question which required a yes or no answer. Fin