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THE 2009 UNESCO FRAMEWORK FOR CULTURAL STATISTICS

D R A F T

UNESCO Institute for Statistics First edition: December 2007

UNESCO Institute for Statistics P.O. Box 6128 Succursale Centre-Ville Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 Canada Tel: (1 514) 343-6880 Fax: (1 514) 343-5740 Email: publications@uis.unesco.org http://www.uis.unesco.org UNESCO-UIS 2008 Ref: UIS/TD/08-01 ISBN: 978-92-9189-052-1 DRAFT

Table of ContentsPage Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................4 Acronyms ......................................................................................................................5 Executive summary.......................................................................................................7 1. 1.1 1.2 1.3 2. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 4. 5. Introduction ..........................................................................................................9 Rationale...........................................................................................................9 Policy context of the framework revision ......................................................... 11 Purpose and key objectives of the framework revision .................................... 13 Theoretical and conceptual model .................................................................... 14 Review of existing cultural statistics frameworks ............................................. 14 Summary of major findings across selected existing frameworks .................... 15 Breadth of the cultural sector in selected frameworks ..................................... 16 Depth of the sector.......................................................................................... 18 Framework revision: New models approach ................................................... 22 Definition issues.............................................................................................. 23 The culture cycle or cultural production chain.................................................. 23 Breadth of the cultural sector........................................................................... 27 Clarifying core cultural domains ...................................................................... 28 The framework structure.................................................................................... 34 Identifying cultural occupations and activities: from the economic to the social model.......................................................................................... 34 The shift to direct measurement ...................................................................... 35 The social model ............................................................................................. 38 Dataset specification ....................................................................................... 42 Culture goods and services: Using the Central Product Classification (CPC) .. 43 Cultural industries: Using the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) .............................................................................................................. 43 Cultural employment: Using the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)........................................................................................ 45 Data collection issues ..................................................................................... 47 Management and policymaking.......................................................................49 Basic proposals for the measurement of the economic and social contribution of culture...................................................................................... 49

Bibliography........................................................................................................ 53 Appendices Appendix I: Glossary............................................................................................ 57 Appendix II: List of consultees.............................................................................. 59 Appendix III: Culture defined using international classifications ........................... 60

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AcknowledgementsThe revised 2009 UNESCO Framework for Cultural Statistics is based upon an initial draft produced for the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) by Paul Owens of Burns Owen Partnership, Calvin Taylor of the University of Leeds and Andy Pratt of the London School of Economics. The actual text of the framework has profited from discussion with many scholars, statisticians and other experts. In particular, we have learnt much from discussions with the UNESCO Culture Sector, which has ensured that the statistics remain policy-relevant.

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AcronymsANZSCO BOP CPC DCMS FCS ICTs IIFB ILO ISCED ISCO ISIC LEG MDGs NSO OECD SIC UIS UNCTAD UNPFII UNSD WIPO Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations Burns Owen Partnership Central Product Classification Department of Culture, Media and Sport, United Kingdom Framework for Cultural Statistics Information Communication Technologies International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity International Labour Organization International Standard Classification of Education International Standard Classification of Occupations International Standard Industrial Classification European Union Leadership Expert Group Millennium Development Goals National statistical office Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Standard Industrial Classification UNESCO Institute for Statistics United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues United Nations Statistics Division World Intellectual Property Organization

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Executive summaryDefining culture: Core and periphery Culture is often a reflection of certain shared beliefs or values. It is not possible to measure such beliefs or values in a systematic or comparable fashion. Instead, this Framework for Culture Statistics aims to identify culture through the behaviour and activities resulting from those beliefs and values. The definition of culture is also very closely related to national and social identity, and yet, it is important to compare certain dimensions of culture across cultures and countries. There is a core set of economic (production of goods and services) and social (participation/attendance in cultural performances) activities that most people and countries regard as forming part of culture. Other economic (e.g. advertising) and social (e.g. sports) activities are not universally accepted as forming part of culture and are therefore peripheral. Therefore, it is not possible, or desirable, to construct a single proscriptive definition of cultural activities. Instead, this framework suggests that statistical authorities select domains or sectors of activities which they consider to be central to their culture. Where countries select the same domain, they should use the definitions set out in this document, making data internationally comparable for that domain. Although the standards used for constructing these definitions are economic, the interpretation of the resulting domain is not limited to economic aspects of culture and extends to all aspects of that domain. Thus, the definition for the measurement of performance includes all performances, whether these are amateur or professional and take place in a formal concert hall or in an open space in a rural village. In addition, the framework emphasises three dimensions of cultural activity that should be measured across a range of sectoral activities or functions. Education and archiving and preserving are defined as transversal functions within the cultural production chain, while traditional and local knowledge is considered as a transversal cultural domain. It has been felt that each of these three dimensions is key to measuring the full breadth of cultural activity. Measuring culture: A pragmatic approach This framework aims to provide a basis for producing comparable data on culture worldwide within the constraints presented above in defining cultural activities. It is acknowledged that the capacities of countries for collecting statistics on culture vary, depending on policy priorities, statistical expertise, and human and financial resources. The framework is explicitly designed to allow statistical authorities to produce internationally comparable data within the limits of these constraints. The framework is built upon the most common international statistical standards the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) and the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO), together with the Central Product Classification (CPC) in order to maximise the potential for using existing surveys to measure cultural

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activity. Countries with fewer resources will be able to use the basic fundamental structure of the ISIC and ISCO classifications to measure cultural activities through standard economic statistics, and household surveys such as labour force surveys and censuses. Countries with more resources and in priority domains will be able to collect more elaborate statistics using the Central Product Classification and more finely tuned, or dedicated, statistical instruments. There is a major role to be played by national labour force surveys, especially in collecting data on secondary occupations, as cultural activities are often the result of part-time or amateur production. It can be argued that in many developing countries cultural production or activities are an important supplement to agricultural and basic manual occupations and, thus, represent an important contribution to poverty alleviation. The framework also makes reference to the cre

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