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Download THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE WEST 1450 - 1750. TWO RENAISSANCES Italian Renaissance Italian Renaissance Renaissance, or rebirth of art and learning, 1350-1600

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THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE WEST 1450 - 1750 Slide 2 TWO RENAISSANCES Italian Renaissance Italian Renaissance Renaissance, or rebirth of art and learning, 1350-1600 Renaissance, or rebirth of art and learning, 1350-1600 Aristocrats, popes, nobles became wealthy patrons and vied to outdo one another Aristocrats, popes, nobles became wealthy patrons and vied to outdo one another Medici Family Medici Family City-states sponsored innovations in art and architecture City-states sponsored innovations in art and architecture Masaccio, Leonardo da Vinci used linear perspective to show depth Masaccio, Leonardo da Vinci used linear perspective to show depth Sculptors (Donatello and Michelangelo) created natural poses Sculptors (Donatello and Michelangelo) created natural poses Slide 3 Trinity by Masaccio The Last Supper and Mona Lisa by da Vinci Slide 4 David by Donatello David, the Pieta, and Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo Slide 5 Renaissance architecture Renaissance architecture Simple, elegant style, inherited from classical Greek and Roman Simple, elegant style, inherited from classical Greek and Roman Magnificent domed cathedrals Magnificent domed cathedrals Brunelleschi's cathedral of Florence Brunelleschi's cathedral of Florence St. Peters in Rome St. Peters in Rome Slide 6 Humanists or Man is the Measure of All Things Humanists or Man is the Measure of All Things Drew inspiration from classical models especially Greece, Rome Drew inspiration from classical models especially Greece, Rome Leading scholars included Dante, Erasmus, Petrarch Leading scholars included Dante, Erasmus, Petrarch Scholars interested in humane letters Scholars interested in humane letters Literature, history, and moral philosophy Literature, history, and moral philosophy Called humanists Called humanists Recovered and translated many classical works Recovered and translated many classical works Attention to political and social issues and graces, too Attention to political and social issues and graces, too Boccaccios Decameron Boccaccios Decameron Castigliones The Courtier Castigliones The Courtier Machiavellis The Prince Machiavellis The Prince Slide 7 Northern Renaissance Northern Renaissance Especially strong in France, England, Netherlands Especially strong in France, England, Netherlands Focus was more on science, math, and Christianity (language favored was Hebrew) Focus was more on science, math, and Christianity (language favored was Hebrew) Strongly supported by the middle classes and minor nobles Strongly supported by the middle classes and minor nobles Leading figures include Shakespeare, Durer, Erasmus, Protestant reformers Leading figures include Shakespeare, Durer, Erasmus, Protestant reformers Slide 8 PROTESTANT REFORMATION Precursors to Luther Precursors to Luther Great/Western Schism 1378 Great/Western Schism 1378 2-3 popes at same time undermined authority of the church 2-3 popes at same time undermined authority of the church Church councils rule/attempt to overrule popes, Council of Constance Church councils rule/attempt to overrule popes, Council of Constance Jan Hus in Holy Roman Empire and Wycliffe in England Jan Hus in Holy Roman Empire and Wycliffe in England Both attacked aspects of church corruption, wealth, practices Both attacked aspects of church corruption, wealth, practices Both condemned by Church Both condemned by Church Hus executed, but Wycliffe protected by King of England Hus executed, but Wycliffe protected by King of England Wycliffe had Bible translated into English Wycliffe had Bible translated into English Slide 9 Martin Luther (1483-1546) Martin Luther (1483-1546) Attacked the sale of indulgences, 1517 Attacked the sale of indulgences, 1517 Attacked corruption in Catholic Church; called for reform Attacked corruption in Catholic Church; called for reform Argument reproduced with printing presses and widely read Argument reproduced with printing presses and widely read Enthusiastic response from lay Christians, princes, many cities Enthusiastic response from lay Christians, princes, many cities By mid-16 th century, half Germans adopted Lutheranism By mid-16 th century, half Germans adopted Lutheranism Slide 10 Reform spread outside Germany Reform spread outside Germany Protestant movements popular in Swiss cities, Netherlands Protestant movements popular in Swiss cities, Netherlands Scandinavian kings like movement as it removes Church as a rival Scandinavian kings like movement as it removes Church as a rival English Reformation sparked by King Henry VIII's desire for divorce English Reformation sparked by King Henry VIII's desire for divorce John Calvin, French convert to Protestantism John Calvin, French convert to Protestantism Organized model Protestant community in Geneva in the 1530s Organized model Protestant community in Geneva in the 1530s Calvinist missionaries were successful in France Calvinist missionaries were successful in France Zwingli leads Calvinist like reformation in Switzerland Zwingli leads Calvinist like reformation in Switzerland John Knox leads Presbyterian movement in Scotland John Knox leads Presbyterian movement in Scotland Martin Bucer writes pamphlets, lead to rise of Puritan movement in England Martin Bucer writes pamphlets, lead to rise of Puritan movement in England Slide 11 CATHOLIC REFORMATION Early Attempts to Reform Early Attempts to Reform Catholic cardinals, bishops call council in early 15 th century Catholic cardinals, bishops call council in early 15 th century Council of Constance deposes rival popes Council of Constance deposes rival popes Attempts to assert authority over pope, initial reforms Attempts to assert authority over pope, initial reforms Catholic intellectuals attack Church corruption Catholic intellectuals attack Church corruption Emperor Sigismund attempts to reform church in Germany Emperor Sigismund attempts to reform church in Germany Church reaction to Luther, Protestants Church reaction to Luther, Protestants Charles V, Church condemn, excommunicate Luther Charles V, Church condemn, excommunicate Luther King Henry VIII condemns Luther King Henry VIII condemns Luther Inquisition unleashed against Protestants Inquisition unleashed against Protestants Spanish use wealth to fund anti-Protestants Spanish use wealth to fund anti-Protestants The Council of Trent, 1545-1563 The Council of Trent, 1545-1563 Directed reform of Roman Catholic Church Directed reform of Roman Catholic Church Attacked corruption Attacked corruption Reaffirmed tradition, Bible as co-equal Reaffirmed tradition, Bible as co-equal The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) Founded 1540 by Ignatius Loyola Founded 1540 by Ignatius Loyola High standards in education High standards in education Combat Protestants with logic, faith, hard work Combat Protestants with logic, faith, hard work Saved S. Germany, E. Europe from Protestants Saved S. Germany, E. Europe from Protestants Became confessors, advisories to kings Became confessors, advisories to kings Worldwide missionaries Worldwide missionaries Slide 12 RELIGIOUS CONFLICT Religious wars Religious wars Between Protestants, Catholics during 16 TH century Between Protestants, Catholics during 16 TH century Wars as much social, political as religious Wars as much social, political as religious Neither side is innocent of conflict Neither side is innocent of conflict Civil war in France Civil war in France Between Huguenots (French Calvinists), Catholic League Between Huguenots (French Calvinists), Catholic League Monarchy often a pawn of both sides and nobles Monarchy often a pawn of both sides and nobles Lasted thirty-six years (1562-1598) Lasted thirty-six years (1562-1598) Ended with new dynasty Ended with new dynasty Spanish Armada Spanish Armada War between Catholic Spain, Protestant England, 1588 War between Catholic Spain, Protestant England, 1588 Spill over from conflict in the Netherlands Spill over from conflict in the Netherlands Question of heir to English throne: Catholic Scottish Queen or Protestant Elizabeth Question of heir to English throne: Catholic Scottish Queen or Protestant Elizabeth Protestant provinces of the Netherlands revolted against rule of Catholic Spain Protestant provinces of the Netherlands revolted against rule of Catholic Spain Originally began as a revolt of all Netherlands against Spain Originally began as a revolt of all Netherlands against Spain Eventually split country into Catholic south (Belgium) and Protestant north (Holland) Eventually split country into Catholic south (Belgium) and Protestant north (Holland) Slide 13 The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) The most destructive European war up to WWI The most destructive European war up to WWI Began as a local conflict in Bohemia; eventually involved most of Europe Began as a local conflict in Bohemia; eventually involved most of Europe Devastated the Holy Roman Empire (German states): lost one- third population Devastated the Holy Roman Empire (German states): lost one- third population Saw rise of Sweden as Great Power and eclipse of Spain, Hapsburgs as European great power Saw rise of Sweden as Great Power and eclipse of Spain, Hapsburgs as European great power Saw independence of Holland, Switzerland from Holy Roman Empire Saw independence of Holland, Switzerland from Holy Roman Empire Ended with Germany neither holy, nor Roman nor an Empire Ended with Germany neither holy, nor Roman nor an Empire Peace of Westphalia Peace of Westphalia Scottish Presbyterians revolt Scottish Presbyterians revolt Expel Catholic Queen with Englands secret assistance Expel Catholic Queen with Englands secret assistance Raise her kidnapped son James as Presbyterian Raise her kidnapped son James as Presbyterian Slide 14 NEW RELIGIOUS MAP Slide 15 STATE BUILDING Italian city-states Italian city-states Flourished with industries and trade Flourished with indus