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15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

EARLY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

NORTHERN ITALIAN

Comparing the styles

Realism through mathematics and linear perspective

Intentional references to Classical Architecture and figure studies

Linear Perspective

Great art in the form of Frescoes and larger Temperas

Masaccio, Donatello, Ghiberti, Brunelleschi, Botticelli

Realism through excessive details

Intentional references to Gothic Architecture

Intuitive Perspective

Great art in the form of Oil Paints, Altarpieces and smaller paintings

Van Der Goes, Van Eyck, Van Der Weyden, Campin

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance Brancacci Chapel, Florence

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance Brancacci Chapel, Florence

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

Masaccio, Tribute Money, Brancacci Chapel, Florence, Italy, ca. 1427.

Masaccio presented this narrative in three episodes within the fresco. In the center, Christ, surrounded by his disciples, tells St. Peter to retrieve the coin from the fish, while the tax collector stands in the foreground, his back to spectators and hand extended, awaiting payment. At the left, in the middle distance, St. Peter extracts the coin

from the fishs mouth, and at the right, he thrusts the coin into the tax collectors hand.

Masaccio realized most of the figures not through generalized modeling with a flat neutral light lacking an identifiable source but by a light coming from a specific source outside the picture.

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

MasaccioExpulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden, Brancacci Chapel, Florence, Italy, ca 1425

This was painted in an awkwardly narrow space at the entrance to the Brancacci Chapel. It displays the representational innovations of Tribute Money. For example, the sharply slanted light from an outside source creates deep relief, with lights placed alongside darks, and acts as a strong unifying agent.

Masaccio also presented the figures moving with structural accuracy and with substantial bodily weight. Further, the hazy, atmospheric background specifies no locale but suggests a space around and beyond the figures. Adams feet, clearly in contact with the ground, mark the human presence on earth, and the cry issuing from Eves mouth voices her anguish.

The angel does not force them physically from Eden, rather, they stumble on blindly, driven by the angels will and their own despair. The composition is starkly simple, its message incomparably eloquent.

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15th Century Italian Renaissance

Masaccio, Holy TrinitySanta Maria Novella, Florence, Italy

ca 1428

Masaccios fresco embodies two principal Renaissance interests--realism based on observation and the application

of mathematics in the new science of perspective. The composition is painted on two levels of unequal height.

In the coffered barrel-vaulted chapel reminiscent of a Roman triumphal arch, the Virgin Mary and St. John appear

on either side of the crucified Christ. God the Father emerges from behind Christ, supporting the arms of the

cross. The Dove of the Holy Spirit hovers between God and Christ. Also included are portraits of the donors of the

painting, who kneel in front of the pilasters.

Below the altar-- a masonry insert in the depicted composition--the artist painted a tomb containing a skeleton. An Italian inscription above the skeleton reminds spectators

that I was once what you are, and what I am you will become.

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15th Century Italian Renaissance

Baptistry of San Giovanni,Florence, Italy, ca 1059

This is the building that Brunelleschi and Ghiberti

were asked to design bronze reliefs for. They each illustrated the story of

Abraham and Isaac.

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

BrunelleschisSacrifice of Isaac

GhibertisSacrifice of Isaac

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

Lorenzo GhibertiGates of Paradise,

baptistery, Florence Cathedral1425-1452

Ghiberti, who demonstrated his interest in perspective in his Sacrifice of Isaac,

embraced Donatellos innovations. Ghibertis enthusiasm for a unified system for

representing space is particularly evident in his famous east doors.

Michelangelo later declared these as so beautiful that they would do well for the

gates of Paradise.

Each of the panels contains a relief set in plain moldings and depicts a scene from

the Old Testament. The complete gilding of the reliefs creates an effect of great

splendor and elegance.

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

Lorenzo GhibertiIsaac and his sons

(Gates of Paradise), baptistery, Florence Cathedral, Florence

1425-1452

EARLY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

Filippo Brunelleschidome of Florence Cathedral

Florence, Italy1420-1436

Brunelleschis broad knowledge of Roman construction principles and his analytical and

inventive mind permitted him to solve an engineering problem that no other 15th-century

architect could have solved. The challenge was the design and construction of a dome for the huge crossing of the unfinished Florence Cathedral.

The space to be spanned was much too wide to permit construction with the aid of traditional

wooden centering. Nor was it possible [because of the crossing plan] to support the dome with

buttressed walls.

In 1420, officials overseeing cathedral projects awarded Brunelleschi and Ghiberti a joint

commission. Ghiberti later abandoned the project and left it to his associates.

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

Brunelleschi not only discarded traditional building methods and devised new ones, but he also invented much of the machinery necessary

for the job.

Although he might have preferred the hemispheric shape of Roman domes,

Brunelleschi raised the center of his dome which is inherently more stable because it reduces the

outward thrust around the domes base.

To minimize the structures weight, he designed a relatively thin double shell--the first in history--around a skeleton of 24 ribs. The eight most

important are visible on the exterior. The structure is anchored at the top with a heavy

lantern, built after his death but from his design.

Filippo Brunelleschidome of Florence Cathedral

Florence, Italy1420-1436

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance Climbing the stairs inside the Duomo

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

Filippo Brunelleschidome of Florence Cathedral

Florence, Italy1420-1436

Note the people on the lantern!

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

Filippo Brunelleschiwest facade of the Pazzi ChapelFlorence, Italy begun ca. 1440

The chapel that was the Pazzi familys gift to the church of Santa Croce in Florence presented

Brunelleschi with the opportunity to explore this interest in a structure much better suited to such

a design than a basilican church.

The chapel was not completed until the 1460s, long after Brunelleschis death, and thus the

exterior does not reflect Brunelleschis original design. The narthex

(the entrance hall leading to the nave of a church.) seems to have been added as an

afterthought, perhaps by the sculptor-architect Giuliano da Maiano.

It is suggested that the local chapter of Franciscan monks who held meetings in the

chapel needed the expansion.

Applying Roman Mathematical Logic

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

This chapel was the Pazzi familys gift to the church of Santa Croce in Florence. The artist is

Filippo Brunelleschi, who began to design this chapel in 1440 and it was not completed until

after his death.

The interior trim is in gray stone or pietra serena (serene stone). Medallions with glazed terracotta are featured on the inside representing the Four

Evangelista and decorated wall panels represent the Twelve Apostles.

Brunelleschi used this opportunity to create a structure more suited to a compact and self-contained central floor plan as seen in the

Pantheon. He used a basic unit that allowed him to construct a balanced, harmonious, and

regularly proportioned space.

Applying Roman Mathematical Logic

Filippo Brunelleschiwest facade of the Pazzi ChapelFlorence, Italy begun ca. 1440

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century Italian Renaissance

Plan and section of the Pazzi Chapel, Florence

Applying Roman Mathematical Logic

15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE

15th Century It