RENAISSANCE EARLY ITALIAN - WCS - ?· 15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 15th Century Italian Renaissance…

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<p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>EARLY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>NORTHERN ITALIAN</p> <p>Comparing the styles</p> <p>Realism through mathematics and linear perspective</p> <p>Intentional references to Classical Architecture and figure studies</p> <p>Linear Perspective</p> <p>Great art in the form of Frescoes and larger Temperas</p> <p>Masaccio, Donatello, Ghiberti, Brunelleschi, Botticelli</p> <p>Realism through excessive details</p> <p>Intentional references to Gothic Architecture</p> <p>Intuitive Perspective</p> <p>Great art in the form of Oil Paints, Altarpieces and smaller paintings</p> <p>Van Der Goes, Van Eyck, Van Der Weyden, Campin</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance Brancacci Chapel, Florence</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance Brancacci Chapel, Florence</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Masaccio, Tribute Money, Brancacci Chapel, Florence, Italy, ca. 1427.</p> <p>Masaccio presented this narrative in three episodes within the fresco. In the center, Christ, surrounded by his disciples, tells St. Peter to retrieve the coin from the fish, while the tax collector stands in the foreground, his back to spectators and hand extended, awaiting payment. At the left, in the middle distance, St. Peter extracts the coin </p> <p>from the fishs mouth, and at the right, he thrusts the coin into the tax collectors hand. </p> <p>Masaccio realized most of the figures not through generalized modeling with a flat neutral light lacking an identifiable source but by a light coming from a specific source outside the picture.</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>MasaccioExpulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden, Brancacci Chapel, Florence, Italy, ca 1425</p> <p>This was painted in an awkwardly narrow space at the entrance to the Brancacci Chapel. It displays the representational innovations of Tribute Money. For example, the sharply slanted light from an outside source creates deep relief, with lights placed alongside darks, and acts as a strong unifying agent. </p> <p>Masaccio also presented the figures moving with structural accuracy and with substantial bodily weight. Further, the hazy, atmospheric background specifies no locale but suggests a space around and beyond the figures. Adams feet, clearly in contact with the ground, mark the human presence on earth, and the cry issuing from Eves mouth voices her anguish. </p> <p>The angel does not force them physically from Eden, rather, they stumble on blindly, driven by the angels will and their own despair. The composition is starkly simple, its message incomparably eloquent.</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Masaccio, Holy TrinitySanta Maria Novella, Florence, Italy</p> <p>ca 1428</p> <p>Masaccios fresco embodies two principal Renaissance interests--realism based on observation and the application </p> <p>of mathematics in the new science of perspective. The composition is painted on two levels of unequal height. </p> <p>In the coffered barrel-vaulted chapel reminiscent of a Roman triumphal arch, the Virgin Mary and St. John appear </p> <p>on either side of the crucified Christ. God the Father emerges from behind Christ, supporting the arms of the </p> <p>cross. The Dove of the Holy Spirit hovers between God and Christ. Also included are portraits of the donors of the </p> <p>painting, who kneel in front of the pilasters.</p> <p>Below the altar-- a masonry insert in the depicted composition--the artist painted a tomb containing a skeleton. An Italian inscription above the skeleton reminds spectators </p> <p>that I was once what you are, and what I am you will become.</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Baptistry of San Giovanni,Florence, Italy, ca 1059</p> <p>This is the building that Brunelleschi and Ghiberti </p> <p>were asked to design bronze reliefs for. They each illustrated the story of </p> <p>Abraham and Isaac.</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>BrunelleschisSacrifice of Isaac</p> <p>GhibertisSacrifice of Isaac</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Lorenzo GhibertiGates of Paradise,</p> <p>baptistery, Florence Cathedral1425-1452</p> <p>Ghiberti, who demonstrated his interest in perspective in his Sacrifice of Isaac, </p> <p>embraced Donatellos innovations. Ghibertis enthusiasm for a unified system for </p> <p>representing space is particularly evident in his famous east doors. </p> <p>Michelangelo later declared these as so beautiful that they would do well for the </p> <p>gates of Paradise.</p> <p>Each of the panels contains a relief set in plain moldings and depicts a scene from </p> <p>the Old Testament. The complete gilding of the reliefs creates an effect of great </p> <p>splendor and elegance.</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Lorenzo GhibertiIsaac and his sons</p> <p>(Gates of Paradise), baptistery, Florence Cathedral, Florence</p> <p>1425-1452</p> <p>EARLY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Filippo Brunelleschidome of Florence Cathedral</p> <p>Florence, Italy1420-1436</p> <p>Brunelleschis broad knowledge of Roman construction principles and his analytical and </p> <p>inventive mind permitted him to solve an engineering problem that no other 15th-century </p> <p>architect could have solved. The challenge was the design and construction of a dome for the huge crossing of the unfinished Florence Cathedral. </p> <p>The space to be spanned was much too wide to permit construction with the aid of traditional </p> <p>wooden centering. Nor was it possible [because of the crossing plan] to support the dome with </p> <p>buttressed walls. </p> <p>In 1420, officials overseeing cathedral projects awarded Brunelleschi and Ghiberti a joint </p> <p>commission. Ghiberti later abandoned the project and left it to his associates.</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Brunelleschi not only discarded traditional building methods and devised new ones, but he also invented much of the machinery necessary </p> <p>for the job. </p> <p>Although he might have preferred the hemispheric shape of Roman domes, </p> <p>Brunelleschi raised the center of his dome which is inherently more stable because it reduces the </p> <p>outward thrust around the domes base. </p> <p>To minimize the structures weight, he designed a relatively thin double shell--the first in history--around a skeleton of 24 ribs. The eight most </p> <p>important are visible on the exterior. The structure is anchored at the top with a heavy </p> <p>lantern, built after his death but from his design. </p> <p>Filippo Brunelleschidome of Florence Cathedral</p> <p>Florence, Italy1420-1436</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance Climbing the stairs inside the Duomo</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Filippo Brunelleschidome of Florence Cathedral</p> <p>Florence, Italy1420-1436</p> <p>Note the people on the lantern!</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Filippo Brunelleschiwest facade of the Pazzi ChapelFlorence, Italy begun ca. 1440</p> <p>The chapel that was the Pazzi familys gift to the church of Santa Croce in Florence presented </p> <p>Brunelleschi with the opportunity to explore this interest in a structure much better suited to such </p> <p>a design than a basilican church. </p> <p>The chapel was not completed until the 1460s, long after Brunelleschis death, and thus the </p> <p>exterior does not reflect Brunelleschis original design. The narthex</p> <p>(the entrance hall leading to the nave of a church.) seems to have been added as an </p> <p>afterthought, perhaps by the sculptor-architect Giuliano da Maiano. </p> <p>It is suggested that the local chapter of Franciscan monks who held meetings in the </p> <p>chapel needed the expansion. </p> <p>Applying Roman Mathematical Logic</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>This chapel was the Pazzi familys gift to the church of Santa Croce in Florence. The artist is </p> <p>Filippo Brunelleschi, who began to design this chapel in 1440 and it was not completed until </p> <p>after his death. </p> <p>The interior trim is in gray stone or pietra serena (serene stone). Medallions with glazed terracotta are featured on the inside representing the Four </p> <p>Evangelista and decorated wall panels represent the Twelve Apostles.</p> <p>Brunelleschi used this opportunity to create a structure more suited to a compact and self-contained central floor plan as seen in the </p> <p>Pantheon. He used a basic unit that allowed him to construct a balanced, harmonious, and </p> <p>regularly proportioned space.</p> <p>Applying Roman Mathematical Logic</p> <p>Filippo Brunelleschiwest facade of the Pazzi ChapelFlorence, Italy begun ca. 1440</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Plan and section of the Pazzi Chapel, Florence</p> <p>Applying Roman Mathematical Logic</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Donatello, David 1428-1432</p> <p>The Medici family commissioned Donatello to create this bronze statue for the Palazzo Medici courtyard. </p> <p>This was the first freestanding nude statue created since ancient times.</p> <p>This statue portrays the biblical David, the young slayer of Goliath and the symbol of the independent </p> <p>Florentine republic. David possesses the relaxed classical contrapposto stance and the proportions </p> <p>and beauty of Greek Praxitelean gods.</p> <p>The Medici family chose the subject of David, perhaps because they had seen Donatellos previous </p> <p>statue of David which is located in the center of political activity in Florence. This shows that the </p> <p>Medici family identified themselves with Florence, and the prosperity of the city. </p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance Donatello, David 1428-1432</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Leon Battista AlbertiPalazzo Rucellai, c.1450 CE.</p> <p>Palazzo Rucellai is a palatial 15th-century townhouse on the Via della Vigna Nuova in </p> <p>Florence. The Rucellai Palace is believed by most scholars to have been designed by Alberti between 1446 and 1451 and executed, at least in part, by Bernardo Rossellino. Its facade was </p> <p>one of the first to proclaim the new ideas of Renaissance architecture based on the use of </p> <p>pilasters and entablatures in proportional relationship to each other.</p> <p>The ground floor was for business (the Rucellai family were powerful bankers) and was flanked </p> <p>by benches running along the street facade. The second story was the main formal reception floor </p> <p>and the third story the private family and sleeping quarters. A fourth "hidden" floor under </p> <p>the roof was for servants; because it had almost no windows, it was quite dark inside.</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Leon Battista AlbertiPalazzo Rucellai, c.1450 CE.</p> <p>The overall horizontality of this faade is called trabeated architecture, which Alberti thought </p> <p>was most fitting for the homes of nobility. Each bay also decreases in height from the bottom to </p> <p>top. On each bay, Alberti used engaged columns, to visually support the entablature. On the first bay, they use the Tuscan order. On the </p> <p>second and third bays, Alberti used smaller stones to give the feeling of lightness, which is </p> <p>enhanced by the rounded arches of the windows, a typically Roman feature. Both of </p> <p>these bays also have pilasters, although on the second bay they are of the Ionic order, and on the third theyre Corinthian. Albertis overriding </p> <p>concern with balance and proportion is evident in his symmetrical treatment of the palaces facade. </p> <p>The use of the three classical orders to indicate upward progression was inspired by the </p> <p>Colosseum at Rome. </p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Sandro BotticelliPortrait of a Youth, early 1480s</p> <p>This full face portrait was created by Botticelli in the last decade of the fifteenth century. </p> <p>Italian painters adopted the 3/4 and full face views believing that such poses increased information available to viewers about the </p> <p>subjects appearance. </p> <p>These poses also permit greater exploration of the subjects character. This is evident in </p> <p>this portrait where he is highly expressive psychologically. He has a delicate pose, a graceful head tilt, sidelong glance, and an </p> <p>elegant hand gesture. The subject seems to be half-musing, half-insinuating. </p> <p>Botticelli merged feminine and masculine traits to make an image of rarefied beauty. </p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus, 1484-86. EARLY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Sandro Botticelli was one of the best known artists who produced works for </p> <p>the Medici. He painted this tempera on canvas for the </p> <p>Medici family.</p> <p>A poem on the theme of the famous Birth of Venus </p> <p>by Angelo Poliziano was what inspired Botticelli to create this lyrical image. </p> <p>Zephyrus (the west wind) blows Venus, born of the </p> <p>sea foam and carried on a cockle shell to her sacred </p> <p>island, Cyprus. The nymph Pomona runs to her with a </p> <p>brocaded mantle. </p> <p>Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus, 1484-86. EARLY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance Comparing dMedicis Venus with Botticellis</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Sandro Botticelli, Primavera, 1482. EARLY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Sandro Botticelli, Adoration of the Magi, c1475. EARLY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Sandro Botticelli,Adoration of the Magi, c 1475.</p> <p>Botticelli painted himself in the picture as he looks back at the viewer !</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus, 1481-82. EARLY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian RenaissanceFra Angelico, Annunciation,</p> <p>San Marco, Florence, Italy 1440-1445 EARLY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th CENTURY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>15th Century Italian Renaissance</p> <p>Leon AlbertiSan Andrea, 1470-76</p> <p>EARLY ITALIAN RENAISSANCE</p> <p>Leon Battista Alberti worked as an architect from the 1450s onward, principally </p> <p>in Florence, Rimini, and Mantua. As a trained humanist and...</p>

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