Italian Early Renaissance (15th cent.) ?· 17/03/2010 · Italian Early Renaissance (15th cent.) Brunelleschi,…

Download Italian Early Renaissance (15th cent.) ?· 17/03/2010 · Italian Early Renaissance (15th cent.) Brunelleschi,…

Post on 19-Jul-2018

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Architecture:

    Brunelleschi and the Rational

    Church

    The origins of photography: scientific

    perspective

    Painting:

    Masaccio and perspective

    (the vision here and now)

    Mantegna and foreshortening

    (in the eyes of the beholder)

    Piero della Francesca: the

    poetry of mathematics

    Sculpture: Donatellos realisms

    Italian Early Renaissance (15th cent.)

  • Brunelleschi,

    Santo Spirito,

    Florence, Italy,

    begun 1436

    Robert de Luzarches, Thomas de

    Cormont, and Renaud de

    Cormont, Amiens Cathedral,

    Maiens, France, begun 1220

    3 main features of the

    Renaissance church:

    1. Sober clarity (modular

    scheme, not

    decorated)

    2. Classical inspiration

    (columns, arches)

    3. Mathematical

    proportions, measurable

    space

    In Renaissance religiosity,

    divinity is revealed by

    equilibrium and harmony,

    rather than by the Gothic

    emotional spirituality

  • 2 main characteristics of

    photography:

    1) the machine fixes

    automatically the complex world

    around us in a quadrangular, two-

    dimensional picture

    2) The photograph acknowledges

    the fact that each picture is a

    fragment of an uninterrupted

    universe

    Scholars have identified

    Renaissance Scientific

    Perspective as the origins of the

    process that would bring to the

    invention of photography

  • SCIENTIFIC PERSPECTIVE (or

    One-point Linear Perspective) was

    invented by Brunelleschi in the

    early 1400s:

    diagonal lines from the edges of

    the picture to the vanishing point,

    create a structural grid that

    organizes the pictorial space and

    determines mathematically the

    relative size of objects

    Scientific or One-point Linear Perspective

    Scientific as

    opposed to

    Giottos

    intuitive

    perspective

  • Scientific or One-point Linear Perspective

    3 main features:

    -love for unity and order

    (Platos idea that measure

    is the basis of beauty)

    -faith in rationality and

    knowledge based on

    observation (emergence

    of science)

    -Importance of the point

    of view (perspective =

    standpoint)

    Scientific as

    opposed to

    Roman and

    Giottos

    intuitive

    perspective

  • Masaccio, The Holy Trinity, Santa Maria

    Novella, Florence, ca. 1428

    Holy Trinity: Father, Crucified

    Christ, and Holy Spirit (dove)

    Virgin and St. John

    Donors

    Talking skeleton

    The first painter to apply Brunelleschis

    theory was the young MASACCIO (1401-

    1428)

    Subject matter:

  • Portraiture /

    individuality

    pitiless realism (detail

    of the loincloth falling

    down)

    Even halos are painted

    in perspective!

    Similarly to van

    Eyck:

    Masaccio, The Holy Trinity, Santa Maria

    Novella, Florence, ca. 1428

  • Differently from van

    Eyck: unity prevails

    over the multiplicity of

    details (synthetic vs.

    analytic)

    Masaccio breaks the

    wall of the church Santa

    Maria Novella with a

    fake niche

    The vanishing point is

    placed at the height of

    an average viewer

    Standing in front of the

    fresco, the visitor has

    the illusion of a vision

    happening in an

    extension of his/her

    space

  • The donors are visual

    mediators

    between the actual space of

    the viewer and the fictional

    space of the vision, kneeling

    on a painted altar

    The ascending pyramid of

    figures leads viewers from the

    image of death

    to the hope of resurrection

    end eternal life

    Masaccio, The Holy Trinity, Santa Maria

    Novella, Florence, ca. 1428

    I was once

    what you are,

    and what I am

    you will become

  • Andrea Mantegna, ceiling of the

    Camera degli Sposi, Palazzo

    Ducale, Mantua, Italy, 1474, Fresco

    Trompe loeil: French for

    deceives the eye objects,

    still-lives, fake

    architectures painted so

    that they appear to be

    three-dimensional and

    touchable

    The viewer is not able to

    determine where the real

    world ends and where the

    fictional realm of

    painting starts

    A long tradition of

    illusionistic frescoes

  • Mantegna breaks the

    ceiling of a bedroom

    as in a courtyard from

    which we can see the sky

    This was the room of the

    newlyweds

    Symbols:

    Putti (symbols of love),

    the peacock (attribute

    of Juno, goddess of

    lawful marriages),

    Andrea Mantegna, ceiling of the

    Camera degli Sposi, Palazzo

    Ducale, Mantua, Italy, 1474, Fresco

    they look down to the

    room and to the intimate

    life of the couple:

    the viewer becomes

    the viewed:

  • There is

    something

    even more

    radical here

    What? The relativityof the point of

    view

    Things can be seen

    (and understood)

    differently from

    different

    perspectives

  • In 1961 Piero Manzoni made a work

    entitled Base of the world:

    it is an upside down sculpture base

    By subtitling his work an homage to

    Galileo, Manzoni was making the absurd

    proclamation

    that the base held on its bearing surface

    the entire world

    And therefore that entire earth is a

    sculpture (you included)

    He was inspired by a painting by

    Mantegna on display at Brera, Milan:

    Piero Manzoni,

    Base of the

    World. Homage

    to Galileo, 1961

  • Mantegna, Dead

    Christ, ca. 1501,

    Tempera on

    canvas

    A religious scene

    that had been

    represented for

    centuries

    The changing of

    perspective makes

    the viewer able to

    see this same scene

    with fresh eyes

  • While Giotto had brought the

    sacred image as on a stage,

    and his viewer was involved

    as a spectator

    Mantegna brings the viewer

    on the stage: the viewer is at

    Christ s beside

    He/she is directly involved in

    the sacred scene not as a

    spectator but as a character

  • most radical

    application of

    foreshortening:

    The application of the

    rules of perspective to

    an object or figure that

    extends back in space:

    Not only are diagonal

    lines converging

    toward the vanishing

    point,

    But also, curved lines,

    body proportions,

    and shadowing are

    altered in order to give

    the illusion of tri-

    dimensionality

    A human being had

    never been

    represented like this!

    Mantegna, Dead

    Christ, ca. 1501,

    Tempera on

    canvas

  • Piero della Francesca,

    Brera Altarpiece, ca.

    1472-1474, oil on panel

    Perspective corresponded to a new

    mathematical approach to

    knowledge and a new concept of

    beauty

    In this period Plato was the most

    studied and influential philosopher of

    the past

    According to Plato, MEASURE was

    the basis of beauty

    Piero della Francesca: the poetry of

    mathematics

  • Perspective was a way to make the

    image of the world measurable

    and therefore beautiful

    This aspect was most effectively

    developed by the work of Piero

    della Francesca

    Piero, a skilled geometrician, wrote

    the first theoretical treatise on

    perspective

    Which coherently combined

    aesthetics, geometry, and

    philosophy in the realm of painting

    Piero della Francesca,

    Brera Altarpiece, ca.

    1472-1474, oil on panel

  • In this altarpiece, painted for the

    duke Federico da Montefeltro,

    Piero organizes the composition

    according to a geometrical and

    symmetrical scheme

    where each part is rationally

    related to the others

    The coffered barrel vault is an

    acknowledgement of Masaccios

    precedent

    Piero della Francesca,

    Brera Altarpiece, ca.

    1472-1474, oil on panel

  • Differently from

    Masaccios

    dramatic realism,

    here other qualities

    prevail:

    -Pure and total light

    (rationality)

    -Silent vision, out

    of time

    However, in this

    perfectly

    symmetrical

    geometry

    something is

    missing

  • As in

    Masaccios

    work, the

    kneeling

    patron is

    portrayed in

    the foreground

    The female

    patron is the

    absent

    keystone of

    the

    compositions

    perfect

    symmetry (the

    Virgins gaze)

  • The duke commissioned the

    altarpiece just a few months after his

    wifes, Battista, death

    This painting is a tribute to her

    demise:

    The altarpiece is a modern, clear,

    rational meditation over the

    concept of death,

    represented through a perfectly

    mathematical composition

    There is no drama, no screaming or

    representation of despair:

    only a missing part in an otherwise

    perfect system

    makes the rational realm

    questioning itself

  • Donatello, Feast of Herod,

    baptismal font of Siena Cathedral,

    Siena, ca. 1425

    Donatello was the very first

    artist to apply Brunelleschi

    theory of perspective in an

    artwork:

    He used linear perspective on

    his relief works as an effective

    setting, where he placed his

    figures:

    Donatello mixed in the same

    wo

Recommended

View more >