The Endocrine System. What is the Endocrine System? Glands in the body that secrete hormones Hormones stimulate growth and affect moods and emotions –

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  • The Endocrine System

  • What is the Endocrine System? Glands in the body that secrete hormonesHormones stimulate growth and affect moods and emotions they are like neurotransmitters because they have specific receptor sitesMajor glands: pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal glands, testes and ovaries

  • The Pituitary GlandLocated just below the hypothalamus, it is the master glandRegulates growth of bones, muscles, and other glandsSecretes hormones necessary for pregnancy and motherhood

  • The Thyroid GlandProduces thyroxin controls metabolismToo little thyroxin can make people overweight, too much can make people underweightLocated in the neck

  • The Adrenal GlandsLocated above the kidneys, produce adrenalineAdrenaline causes the body to become excited during stressful situationsCan intensify emotions such as fear and anxiety

  • Testes and OvariesProduce sex hormonesTestosterone helps in the growth of muscle and bone, is directly involved in male sexual development and characteristics (beard growth, chest hair)Estrogen responsible for female sex characteristics and developmentProgesterone stimulates growth of reproductive organs and prepares body for pregnancyMales and females produce all of these hormones, but at different levels and for different reasons

  • Genes and Heredity

  • HeredityThe transmission of characteristics from parents to their childrenThese characteristics, along with hormones, play a major role in a persons developmentChildren can inherit physical traits (eye color, height, skin color)Some psychological traits (shyness, leadership ability, aggression) are influenced by heredity, but the environment also plays a major role in their development

  • Genes and ChromosomesGenes the basic building blocks of heredity genes are found in chromosomesGenes are organized in pairs we get one gene from our mother and one from our fatherChromosomes small, thread-like structures made up of DNAThere are 23 pairs of chromosomes in normal cells (46 chromosomes total 23 from your mother and 23 from your father)If a child does not have 46 chromosomes, he may have physical or behavioral disordersMost common disorder is an extra chromosome on the 21st pair of chromosomes causes Down syndrome

  • Nature Vs NurtureNature what people inherit biologically from their parentsNurture the environmental factors people are exposed to in their life (family, education, living conditions, culture)Some people believe personality is based in their biology while others argue that the persons environment determines how his personality will developMost modern psychologists believe both nature and nurture influence a persons development, but they still disagree on the extent to which each has on personality and behavior

  • Studying Heredity through KinshipIdentical Twins share 100% of their genesChildren share 50% of their genes with each parent and, on average, their siblingsA child shares 25% of his genes with aunts and unclesFirst cousins share 12.5 % of their genesPsychologists use this information to determine how much a trait is influenced by geneticsIf a trait is determined by genes, then people who share more genes should be more likely to show the trait

  • Twin StudiesDifferences among identical twins must develop from environmental factors since they share 100% of their genetic materialIdentical twins are more likely than fraternal twins to have the same personality traits and share the same psychological disorders (schizophrenia, autism)HOWEVER identical twins are usually raised in the same environment and treated similarly, so its hard to determine how much of their identity is determined by nature and how much by nurture

  • Adoptee StudiesPsychologists can study nature vs. nurture by examining children who were separated from their natural familiesPsychologists look for similarities that an adoptee has with his biological family and similarities with his adopted family to determine the effects of nature and nurture

  • Twins Raised ApartIn 1979 a group of psychologists studies sets of twins who were raised apart from one anotherThey found that many psychological traits like shyness, aggression, intelligence, and leadership, are determined by HEREDITY

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