tea industry in india - overview

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  • 1. IITI Commodity Project Commodity - TEA Presented By: Sushant Mishra [email_address]
  • 2. Introduction
    • Tea origins China (4 th century AD).
    • 350 A.D. Kuo Po described tea as, a beverage made from boiled leaves.
    • People - interior part of China pressed tea into brick currency to barter with other tribes.
    • From 350 to 600 A.D., the demand for tea dramatically increased and outstripped the supply of wild tea trees.
  • 3.
    • Farmers began to grow tea plants in the Szechwan district soon spread to whole China.
    • Western world tea introduced by Venetian writer Ramusio (16 th century).
    • 1 st public sale of Tea England - Thomas Garway in 1657.
  • 4. Introduction of Tea to India and beginning of Tea trade
    • In 1780 Tea cultivation experimented in India with seeds from China by Robert Kyd.
    • Robert Bruce(1823) discovered wild tea plants growing in Upper Brahmaputra Valley.
    • May 1838 Tea from Assam sent to England for public sale for 1 st time.
  • 5. Tea in India
    • Major 3 tea producing regions:
    • Darjeeling (North-Eastern India)
    • Assam (far North-East India)
    • Nilgiri (South India)
    • All 3 differ in style and flavour.
  • 6.
  • 7. Darjeeling
    • Found in the foothills of Himalayas.
    • Grows at altitudes of 600m to 2000m.
    • Cool moist climate, rainfall and sloping hilly terrain give the Muscatel Flavor to the Tea.
    • Called Champagne of Teas finest and most uniquely flavored.
  • 8. Assam
    • Rainfall - 100 to 150 inches per year.
    • Offer rich, full-bodied, bright tea liquor.
    • A bright, strong cup of tea.
    • Assam is the single largest contiguous tea growing area in the world.
  • 9. Nilgiri
    • Blue Mountains of Nilgiri in South India.
    • Tea grown at an elevation of 1000m to 2500m.
    • Rainfall varies from 60 inches to 90 inches annually.
    • Fine, elegant flavor and brisk liquor.
    • The combination of fragrance and briskness makes Nilgiri a truly unique tea in the world.
  • 10.
    • Apart from the above three distinct tea growing regions tea is also grown in:
    • Kerala
    • Karnataka
    • Himachal Pradesh
    • Uttaranchal
    • Sikkim
    • Orissa
    • Bihar
    • Arunachal Pradesh
    • Tripura
    • Manipur
    • Nagaland
    • Mizoram & Meghalaya
    • Dooars and Terai of West Bengal
  • 11. Indian Tea
    • Tea Act,1953 - Tea means the plant Camellia Sinensis (L) O. Kuntze.
    • Tea leaves during manufacturing Made Tea in factories generate Tea waste.
    • Tea Waste Unfit for human consumption and used for:
    • manufacture of caffeine.
    • manufacture of Instant Tea.
    • using as manure in the tea field.
  • 12. Green and Black Tea
    • Made tea or Tea manufactured from green tea leaves is generally classified into two types:
    • Black Tea
    • Green Tea
  • 13. Black Tea
    • Two types:
    • Orthodox Tea
    2. CTC Tea (Crushing, Tearing & Curling)
  • 14.
    • Green tea is different from Black tea since fermentation of green leaves is arrested in manufacturing green tea.
    • Again black tea is of two types viz. Orthodox tea and CTC tea.
    • Orthodox teas are manufactured with the help of orthodox roller in the process of rolling.
    • CTC machine/Rotervan is used in rolling process in manufacturing CTC teas. CTC stands for Crushing, Tearing & Curling.
  • 15.
  • 16.
    • Most of the teas produced in Sri Lanka is of orthodox variety.
    • Kenya produces mainly CTC teas.
    • The tea processing in any factory in the traditional way comprises the following phases:
    • 1. Withering 2. Rolling 3. Fermentation 4. Drying 5. Sorting & Grading
  • 17.
  • 18. Instant Tea
    • Instant tea: is also being manufactured in India and in few other tea producing countries of the world like Kenya and Sri Lanka.
    • The raw materials used for manufacturing Instant tea are green tea leaves and/or tea waste.
  • 19. Tea Bags
    • Tea, mainly the black tea is also being further processed to manufacture tea bags.
    • Filter papers is being used as packaging material for manufacture of tea bags.
    • Instant tea and Tea bags are generally known as convenience tea since these are convenient for consumers to get the liquor with less hazards.
  • 20. Quality of Tea
    • The characteristic of the beverage like tea is determined by the major components of the leaf:
    • polyphenols,
    • the peptic substances,
    • the flavouring constituents and
    • caffeine.
    • The caffeine is known for its stimulating effect.
  • 21.
    • So quality means the summation of the desirable attributes comprising internal and external characters like:
    • aroma/flavour,
    • strength,
    • colour,
    • briskness and
    • character of infused leaf.
  • 22. Primary Factors affecting Tea Quality
    • The quality of tea depends primarily on:
    • the nature and chemical composition of the plucked leaf
    • the type of bush,
    • the growing conditions and
    • the kind of plucked leaf like coarseness and fineness etc.
  • 23. Secondary Factors affecting Tea Quality
    • The factors affecting tea quality apart from those involved in processing can be distinguished in 3 groups viz. genetic, environmental and cultural.
    • Tea quality is primarily determined by the genetic properties of the tea planting and those of the tea bush in particular.
    • Both soil and climate are influencing the quality of tea. Climatic condition including temperature, humidity, sunshine duration, rainfall are important in determining quality.
    • Field operation like pruning, fertilising, shading, plucking round and plucking standard are also playing the important role in determining the quality of tea.
  • 24. Tea Definition
    • In order to prevent tea from any possible adulteration, the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 is in existence. Tea therefore shall conform to the following specifications as indicated in the PFA Act, 1954.
    Not less than 32.0 percent d) Extract obtained by boiling dry tea (dried to constant weight at 100 C) with 100 parts of distilled water for one hour under reflux Not more than 1.0 percent by weight on dry basis c) Ash insoluble in HCL Not less than 40.0 percent of total ash b) Total ash soluble in boiling distilled water 4.0 to 8.0 percent by weight a) Total ash determined on tea dried to a constant weight at 100 C
  • 25.
    • Note:-
    • It shall not contain any added colouring matter or added flavouring matter.
    • Provided that tea for export may contain added flavour under proper label declaration.
    • Provided further that the tea used in the manufacture of flavoured tea shall conform to the standards of tea.
    Not more than 17.0 percent f) Crude fibre determined on tea dried to constant weight at 100 C Not less than 1.0 percent and not more than 2.2 percent expressed as K2O on dry basis e) Alkalinity of soluble ash
  • 26. Tea Tasting
    • The made tea of an estate, is tested by the commercial tasters (generally known as b