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  • A Manual of Practice

    SUSTAINABLECONCRETE PAVEMENTS:

    January 2012

  • Sustainable Concrete Pavements: A Manual of PracticeJanuary 2012

    TECHNICAL EDITORSDr. Peter Taylor, Associate Director National Concrete Pavement Technology Center, Iowa State University

    Dr. Tom Van Dam, Principal Engineer, CTLGroup (previously, Program Director, Materials and Sustainability Group, Applied Pavement Technology)

    CO-AUTHORSDr. Tom Van Dam, Principal Engineer, CTLGroup (previously, Program Director, Materials and Sustainability Group, Applied Pavement Technology)

    Dr. Peter Taylor, Associate Director National Concrete Pavement Technology Center, Iowa State University

    Mr. Gary Fick, Vice President Trinity Construction Management Services, Inc.

    Dr. David Gress, Assistant Director Recycled Materials Resource Center, University of New Hampshire

    Ms. Martha VanGeem, Principal Engineer, CTLGroup

    Ms. Emily Lorenz, Engineer, CTLGroup

    EDITORMs. Marcia Brink, National Concrete Pavement Technology Center, Iowa State University

    DESIGNER

    Ms. Mina Shin, Consulting Graphic Designer

    Funded by the Federal Highway Administration (DTFH61-06-H-00011 (Work Plan 23))

  • Institute for Transportation, Iowa State University Research Park, 2711 South Loop Drive, Suite 4700, Ames, IA 50010-8664

    Printed in the United States of America January 2012

    Sustainable Concrete Pavements: A Manual of Practice

    ISBN: 978-0-9820144-2-4

    This document fills a priority communications need identified in the Sustainability Track (Track 12) of the Long-Term Plan for Concrete Pavement Research and Technology, a national research plan jointly developed by the concrete pavement stakeholder community (www.cproadmap.org/ index.cfm).

    DISCLAIMERSThe contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the information presented herein. The opinions, findings, and conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the spon-sors. The sponsors assume no liability for the contents or use of the information contained in this document. This report does not consti-tute a standard, specification, or regulation. The sponsors do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

    Iowa State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, age, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, sex, marital status, disability, genetic testing, or status as a U.S. veteran. Inquiries can be directed to the Director of Equal Opportunity and Diver-sity, Iowa State University, 3680 Beardshear Hall, 515-294-7612.

    FOR MORE INFORMATIONTom Cackler, Director

    Sabrina Shields-Cook, Managing Editor

    National Concrete Pavement Technology CenterIowa State University Research Park2711 S. Loop Drive, Suite 4700Ames, IA 50010-8664

    515-294-7124shieldsc@iastate.eduwww.cptechcenter.org/

    PHOTO CREDITSUnless otherwise indicated in the text, all photographs and illustrations used in this guide were provided by the technical editor and co-author Dr. Peter Taylor.

    MISSIONThe mission of the National Concrete Pavement Tech-nology Center is to unite key transportation stake-holders around the central goal of advancing concrete pavement technology through research, tech transfer, and technology implementation.

  • Sustainable Concrete Pavements A Manual of Practice v

    CONTENTSLIST OF FIGURES .................................... vii

    LIST OF TABLES.......................................viii

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ............................ ix

    PREFACE .................................................. x

    Ch. 1. INTRODUCTION .............................11. What is Sustainability?...........................................2

    2. Concrete Pavements and Sustainability ..............2

    3. Why Should the Concrete Pavement Industry Care about Sustainability? ...................................3

    4. Organization of This Manual .................................4

    5. References .............................................................6

    Ch. 2. PAVEMENT SUSTAINABILITY CONCEPTS ..........................................7

    1. A Systems Approach Seeing the Big Picture ........................................8

    2. Concrete Pavements ...........................................10

    Design Phase ........................................................ 11Materials .............................................................. 11Operations ............................................................ 12Preservation and Rehabilitation .......................... 12Reconstruction and Recycling ............................ 13

    3. Importance of Innovation ...................................13

    4. References ...........................................................14

    Ch. 3. DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE PAVEMENTS ........................151. Context-Sensitive Design .....................................16

    2. Concrete Pavement Design: The State of the Practice ................................................................17

    3. Design Attributes Directly Enhancing Sustainability .......................................................18

    4. Alternative and Emerging Design Technologies ......................................................18

    Two-Lift Concrete Pavement ................................ 19Precast Concrete Pavement Systems .................. 20Roller-Compacted Concrete Pavement ............. 21Interlocking Concrete Pavers ............................... 22

    Thin Concrete Pavement Design ......................... 22Pervious Concrete ................................................ 23

    5. References ...........................................................23

    Ch. 4. SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE PAVEMENT MATERIALS ..........................251. Cementitious Materials .......................................26

    More Efficient Clinker Production ......................... 27Reducing Portland Cement Clinker in Cement . 27Reducing Cementitious Contents in Concrete .. 28Reduce Concrete Used Over the Life Cycle ....... 28

    2. Supplementary Cementitious Materials .............29

    3. Emerging Cementitious Systems ........................30

    4. Aggregates ..........................................................30

    Gradation ............................................................. 31Aggregate Type .................................................... 31Natural .................................................................. 31Durability ............................................................... 32

    5. Water ....................................................................33

    6. Admixtures ...........................................................34

    7. Reinforcement .....................................................34

    8. Proportioning .......................................................35

    9. References ...........................................................35

    Ch. 5. CONSTRUCTION ..........................371. Overview of Construction Issues Related to

    Sustainability .......................................................38

    2. Traditional Slipform Paving Processes and Impacts on Sustainability ....................................38

    Establishing and Operating a Plant Site ............. 38Stockpiling Aggregate ......................................... 39Establishing and Maintaining Haul Routes ......... 40Concrete Production ............................................ 40Transporting Concrete ......................................... 42Concrete Placement and Finishing .................... 43Surface Texturing .................................................. 44Curing Concrete .................................................. 44Sawing and Sealing Joints .................................. 45

    3. New Developments in Concrete Pavement That Could Improve Sustainability ..............................45

    Two Lift Concrete Pavements ............................... 45Roller-Compacted Concrete ............................... 46

    4. References ...........................................................46

  • Sustainable Concrete Pavements A Manual of Practicevi

    CONTENTS, continued

    Ch. 6. IMPACT OF THE USE PHASE ..........471. Vehicle Fuel Consumption ..................................48

    2. Other Environmental Impacts During Use .........49

    Solar Reflectance ................................................. 49Lighting ................................................................. 50Carbonation ......................................................... 51Run-Off and Leachate .......................................... 51Traffic Delays ......................................................... 51

    3. Summary..............................................................52

    4. References ...........................................................52

    Ch. 7. CONCRETE PAVEMENT RENEWAL 551. Pavement Renewal Concepts ............................56

    2. Pavement Evaluation Overview ..........................57

    3. Preventive Maintenance Treatments ..................58

    Partial-Depth Repair ............................................. 58Full-Depth Repair .................................................. 59Load Transfer Restoration ..................................... 60Diamond Grinding ............................................... 61Summary ............................................................... 62

    4. Rehabili

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