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  • Home Affairs

    European Commission, DG Migration

    & Home Affairs

    Study on smuggling of

    migrants

    Characteristics, responses and cooperation with third

    countries

    Case Study 4: Nigeria – Turkey – Bulgaria

  • Home Affairs

    Written by Will Huddelston, Aysem Biriz Karacay and Marina Nikolova

    Edited by Veronika Bilger, Maegan Hendow and Tahnee Reed

  • Case Study 4: Nigeria – Turkey – Bulgaria

    1

    Contents

    1. Executive Summary ................................................................................................................ 3

    2. Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 7

    2.1 The case study purpose ..................................................................................................................... 7

    2.2 General introduction to the case study ................................................................................................. 8

    2.3 Methodology ..................................................................................................................................... 9

    2.4 General Background on relevant issues regarding migrant smuggling for each of the case study countries . 11

    2.4.1 General Background Nigeria .......................................................................................................... 11

    2.4.2 General Background Turkey .......................................................................................................... 15

    2.4.3 General Background Bulgaria ........................................................................................................ 18

    3. Migrant smuggling along the selected route ......................................................................... 21

    3.1 Route segment Nigeria – Turkey ....................................................................................................... 21

    3.1.1 Dynamics, scale and patterns........................................................................................................ 21

    3.1.2 Modus operandi ........................................................................................................................... 24

    3.1.3 Supply side: Smugglers and their organisation ................................................................................ 28

    3.1.4 Migrants and their families/communities......................................................................................... 30

    3.2 Route segment Turkey – Bulgaria ...................................................................................................... 34

    3.2.1 Dynamics, scale and patterns........................................................................................................ 34

    3.2.2 Modus operandi ........................................................................................................................... 36

    3.2.3 Supply side: Smugglers and their organisation ................................................................................ 41

    3.2.4 Migrants and their families/communities......................................................................................... 43

    3.3 Other relevant recent trends on the selected route sections .................................................................. 47

    3.3.1 Other routes from Nigeria to Europe .............................................................................................. 47

    3.3.2 Nigeria – Europe: Overland route .................................................................................................. 48

    3.3.3 Nigeria – Europe: issues related to trafficking in persons .................................................................. 49

    3.3.4 Other routes from Turkey to Bulgaria: the Black Sea........................................................................ 50

    3.3.5 From Turkey through the eastern Aegean Islands ............................................................................ 51

    3.3.6 Secondary movement from Bulgaria .............................................................................................. 51

    4. Policy Responses to migrant smuggling among and in the countries selected ...................... 54

    4.1 Policies directed towards the selected routes ...................................................................................... 54

    4.1.1 Route segment Nigeria – Turkey.................................................................................................... 54

    4.1.2 Route segment Turkey – Bulgaria .................................................................................................. 54

    4.1.3 Route segment Nigeria – the European Union ................................................................................. 56

  • Case Study 4: Nigeria – Turkey – Bulgaria

    2

    4.2 National policy framework: Nigeria .................................................................................................... 57

    4.3 National policy framework: Turkey .................................................................................................... 64

    4.4 National policy framework: Bulgaria................................................................................................... 68

    5. Conclusions .......................................................................................................................... 74

    6. Interviews and consultations ............................................................................................... 76

    7. References ........................................................................................................................... 78

    Table of figures

    Figure 1: Irregular migration routes relevant for Nigeria, Turkey and Bulgaria........................................................ 9

    Figure 2: Irregular migration routes in West Africa ........................................................................................... 12

    Figure 3: Main routes in the irregular movements in Turkey............................................................................... 15

    Figure 4: Irregular migration routes in the Eastern Mediterranean countries ........................................................ 19

    Figure 5: Nigeria’s institutional and governance structure. ................................................................................. 59

    Figure 6: NAPTIP Awareness raising poster warning of the risks of irregular migration. ......................................... 64

    Table of tables

    Table 1: Arrivals in and Departure from Turkey by African nationality, 2012-2013 ................................................ 22

    Table 2: Smuggling Events at Istanbul Ataturk Airport (2013-2014) ................................................................... 23

    Table 3: Statistics on trafficking in human beings from Nigeria to the EU 2010 –2012 ........................................... 29

    Table 4: Number of apprehended migrants by nationality for illegal entry ............................................................ 34

    Table 5: Total number of apprehended migrants for illegal entry at the Bulgarian borders – green border and BCP

    (January 2015- 19 March 2015) ..................................................................................................................... 35

    Table 6: Refused entries at the Bulgarian-Turkish BCPs for TCN’s in the period 2010-2014 .................................... 35

    Table 7: Apprehended migrants for illegal entry at the Bulgarian-Turkish border 2010-2014 .................................. 35

    Table 8: Number of apprehended migrants with fraudulent documents at the Bulgarian-Turkish BCPs in the period

    2010-2015 .................................................................................................................................................. 38

    Table 9: Arrested smugglers of migrants for illegal entry of the Bulgarian state border per year and nationality. ...... 42

    Table 10: Nigerian Nationals in FRONTEX data, 2010 – 2013. ............................................................................ 48

    Table 11: Apprehended migrants for illegal attempt of exit through the Bulgarian state borders (January 2015 - 19

    March 2015) ................................................................................................................................................ 52

    Table 12: Number of cases of pre-trial procedures and total number of convicted and sanctioned persons with

    effective sentences/decisions according to Articles 279, 280 and 281 of the Criminal Code for the period 2010-2014.

    .................................................................................................................................................................. 70

  • Case Study 4: Nigeria – Turkey – Bulgaria

    3

    1. Executive Summary

    This case study has been developed in the framework of the EU-funded “Study on smuggling of migrants:

    characteristics, responses and cooperation with third countries”. Five case studies served as an info

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