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  • Home Affairs

    European Commission, DG Migration

    & Home Affairs

    Study on smuggling of

    migrants Characteristics, responses and cooperation with third

    countries Case Study 3: Pakistan Turkey Greece

  • Home Affairs

    Case Study 3: Pakistan Turkey Greece

    Written by Damla B. Aksel, Angeliki Dimitriadi, Maegan Hendow, Ahmet duygu, Aysem Biriz Karacay, Michaela

    Maroufof and Jenny Andersson-Pucher

    Edited by Veronika Bilger, Maegan Hendow and Tahnee Reed

  • Case Study 3: Pakistan Turkey Greece

    1

    Contents

    1. Executive Summary ............................................................................................................ 3

    2. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 7

    2.1 The case study purpose ..................................................................................................................... 7

    2.2 General introduction to the case study ................................................................................................. 8

    2.3 Methodology .................................................................................................................................... 9

    2.4 General Background on relevant issues regarding migrant smuggling for each of the case study countries . 12

    2.4.1 General Background Pakistan ........................................................................................................ 12

    2.4.2 General Background Turkey .......................................................................................................... 13

    2.4.3 General Background Greece .......................................................................................................... 15

    3. Migrant smuggling along the selected route ..................................................................... 19

    3.1 Route segment Pakistan Turkey ..................................................................................................... 19

    3.1.1 Dynamics, scale and patterns........................................................................................................ 19

    3.1.2 Modus operandi ........................................................................................................................... 20

    3.1.3 Document fraud .......................................................................................................................... 21

    3.2 Route segment Turkey Greece ....................................................................................................... 29

    3.2.1 Dynamics, scale and patterns........................................................................................................ 29

    3.2.2 Modus Operandi .......................................................................................................................... 32

    3.2.3 Supply side: Smugglers and their organisation ................................................................................ 37

    3.2.4 Migrants and their families/communities......................................................................................... 41

    3.3 Other relevant recent trends on the selected route sections ................................................................. 43

    3.3.1 Other routes from Turkey ............................................................................................................. 43

    3.3.2 Secondary movements ................................................................................................................. 44

    3.3.3 Document fraud .......................................................................................................................... 45

    4 Policy Responses to migrant smuggling among and in the countries selected .................. 47

    4.1 Policies directed towards the selected routes ...................................................................................... 47

    4.1.1 Route segment Pakistan Turkey .................................................................................................. 47

    4.1.2 Route segment Turkey Greece .................................................................................................... 48

    4.1.3 Route segment Pakistan Greece.................................................................................................. 50

    4.2 National policy framework: Pakistan .................................................................................................. 51

    4.3 National policy framework: Turkey .................................................................................................... 60

    4.4 National policy framework: Greece .................................................................................................... 64

    5 Conclusions ...................................................................................................................... 68

  • Case Study 3: Pakistan Turkey Greece

    2

    6 Interviews and consultations ........................................................................................... 70

    7 References ....................................................................................................................... 74

    8 Annexes ........................................................................................................................... 78

    Annex 1: Characteristics of Pakistani and Afghan smuggled migrants .................................................................. 78

    Annex 2: Migration process legal and irregular .............................................................................................. 79

    Annex 3: Statistical annex ............................................................................................................................. 81

    Table of figures

    Figure 1: Irregular migration routes from Pakistan. ............................................................................................ 9

    Figure 2: Apprehensions at the Greek-Turkish maritime border .......................................................................... 16

    Figure 3: Irregular migration flows and disembarkation points in the Aegean Sea ................................................. 29

    Figure 4: Main Smuggling routes and patterns in Turkey ................................................................................... 30

    Figure 5: Apprehended migrants by the Turkish Coast Guard by nationality, 2011 - Feb 2015 ................................ 32

    Figure 6: Basic Smuggling network (as described by informant) ....................................................................... 38

    Figure 7: Depiction of multiple interrelations in the smuggling operation ............................................................. 39

    Figure 8: Total arrested organizers in 2008-2013. ............................................................................................ 40

    Figure 9: Interceptions along the Pakistan-Afghan border. ................................................................................. 57

    Figure 10: Interceptions in 2013. ................................................................................................................... 57

    Table of tables

    Table 1: Immigrants from Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan and Syria arrested for illegal entry and stay in Greece (2009-

    2014) ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

    Table 2: Estimated cost of smuggling services and fees. .................................................................................... 23

    Table 3: Irregular Migrant Apprehensions in Greece (2008-2012) ....................................................................... 31

    Table 4: Irregular Migrant Apprehensions in Greece (2014) ............................................................................... 31

    Table 5: Greek Readmission Requests. ............................................................................................................ 49

    Table 6: Returns of Pakistani nationals from Greece. ........................................................................................ 51

  • Case Study 3: Pakistan Turkey Greece

    3

    1. Executive Summary

    This case study has been developed in the framework of the EU-funded Study on smuggling of migrants:

    characteristics, responses and cooperation with third countries. Five case studies served as an information collection

    tool to contribute to the data collection of the larger study, in order to provide detailed information on the

    phenomenon of migrant smuggling and policies to address it as occurring in particular countries or along particular

    route segments.

    The rationale for the decision on case study countries and route segments covered has been made based on their

    relevance according to indicators such as the number of irregular migrants apprehended (particularly based on

    Frontex data), border type, modus operandi, migration route and relationship with third countries, following the

    requirements in line with the tender specifications for the Study.

    In this case study, Pakistan was selected as the country of departure, with Turkey chosen as a transit country and

    Greece as the country of first entry to the EU. This case st

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