Issue Paper: Smuggling of Migrants by Paper: Smuggling of Migrants by Sea Page 3 of 71 Issue Paper: Smuggling of Migrants by Sea Contents Acknowledgements.....6

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<ul><li><p>IssuePaperSmugglingofMigrants</p><p>bySea</p></li><li><p>IssuePaper:SmugglingofMigrantsbySea</p><p>Page2of71</p><p>UnitedNations,2011.Allrightsreserved.Thispublicationhasnotbeenformallyedited.</p></li><li><p>IssuePaper:SmugglingofMigrantsbySea</p><p>Page3of71</p><p>IssuePaper:SmugglingofMigrantsbySea</p><p>Contents</p><p>Acknowledgements................................................................................................................6 </p><p>ExecutiveSummary................................................................................................................7 </p><p>1. OVERVIEWOFMIGRANTSMUGGLINGBYSEA .......................................................................9 </p><p>1.1. Definitionofsmugglingofmigrants.......................................................................10 </p><p>1.2. Extent,patterns,routesandtrends.......................................................................10 </p><p>1.2.1. Aglobalsnapshot:smugglingbysearelativetosmugglingbylandandair......11 </p><p>1.2.2. Europe ................................................................................................................12 </p><p>1.2.3. MiddleEast.........................................................................................................16 </p><p>1.2.4. Americas.............................................................................................................16 </p><p>1.2.5. EastAsiaandthePacific.....................................................................................18 </p><p>2. MODUSOPERANDI ..............................................................................................................19 </p><p>2.1. Actorsandrolesinmigrantsmugglingbysea .......................................................19 </p><p>2.1.1.Profileofmigrantsmugglers .................................................................................19 </p><p>2.1.2.Profileofsmuggledmigrants ................................................................................22 </p><p>2.2. Journeytothecoast...............................................................................................23 </p><p>2.2.1. Landandairtravel .............................................................................................23 </p><p>2.2.2. Recruitment .......................................................................................................24 </p><p>2.2.3. Safehouses ........................................................................................................25 </p><p>2.3. Theseajourney......................................................................................................26 </p><p>2.3.1. Embarkationanddeparture...............................................................................26 </p><p>2.3.2. TransportandEquipment ..................................................................................27 </p><p>2.3.3. Pilotingtheboat.................................................................................................30 </p><p>2.3.4. Conditionsatsea................................................................................................30 </p><p>2.3.5. Arrivalorinterception........................................................................................31 </p><p>2.3.6. Deathsatsea......................................................................................................32 </p><p>2.4. Fees,paymentsandprofits....................................................................................34 </p><p>2.4.1. Fees ....................................................................................................................34 </p><p>2.4.2. Payments............................................................................................................35 </p><p>2.4.3. Profits .................................................................................................................35 </p><p>3. RESPONSEandCHALLENGES ................................................................................................36 </p></li><li><p>IssuePaper:SmugglingofMigrantsbySea</p><p>Page4of71</p><p>3.1.Encounteringmigrantsmugglingatsea .......................................................................36 </p><p>3.1.1.Detection...............................................................................................................36 </p><p>3.1.2.Interception...........................................................................................................38 </p><p>3.1.3.Rescue ...................................................................................................................40 </p><p>3.1.4.Assistanceandprotection.....................................................................................42 </p><p>3.2.Investigationandprosecution ......................................................................................45 </p><p>3.2.1.LegislativeFramework ..........................................................................................45 </p><p>3.2.2.Identificationofsmugglersonboardboats ..........................................................46 </p><p>3.2.3.Investigatinglandbasedorganisers .....................................................................46 </p><p>3.3.Prevention.....................................................................................................................47 </p><p>3.3.1.AddressingRootCauses ........................................................................................47 </p><p>3.3.2.AwarenessRaising.................................................................................................48 </p><p>3.3.3.Interceptsmugglingvesselsbeforedeparture .....................................................49 </p><p>3.3.4.Increasedresearch,datacollectionandinformationsharing ..............................50 </p><p>3.4.Cooperation ..................................................................................................................51 </p><p>3.4.1.Internationalcooperation .....................................................................................51 </p><p>3.4.2.Bilateralandregionalcooperation .......................................................................53 </p><p>3.4.3.Interagencycooperation.......................................................................................54 </p><p>4. SUGGESTIONSFORCONSIDERATIONANDDISCUSSION .......................................................55 </p><p>4.1Encounteringmigrantsmugglingatsea ........................................................................55 </p><p>4.1.1.Detection...............................................................................................................55 </p><p>4.1.2.Interception...........................................................................................................55 </p><p>4.1.3.Rescue ...................................................................................................................56 </p><p>4.1.4.Assistanceandprotection.....................................................................................57 </p><p>4.2Investigationandprosecution .......................................................................................57 </p><p>4.2.1.LegislativeFramework ..........................................................................................57 </p><p>4.2.2.Identificationofsmugglersonboardboats ..........................................................58 </p><p>4.2.3.Investigatinglandbasedsmugglers......................................................................58 </p><p>4.3Prevention......................................................................................................................59 </p><p>4.3.1.Addressingrootcauses .........................................................................................59 </p><p>4.3.2.Awarenessraising..................................................................................................59 </p><p>4.3.3.Interceptsmugglingvesselsbeforedeparture .....................................................60 </p><p>4.3.4.Increasedresearch,datacollectionandinformationsharing ..............................60 </p></li><li><p>IssuePaper:SmugglingofMigrantsbySea</p><p>Page5of71</p><p>4.4Cooperation ...................................................................................................................61 </p><p>4.4.1.Internationalcooperation .....................................................................................61 </p><p>4.4.2.Bilateralandregionalcooperation .......................................................................61 </p><p>4.4.3.Interagencycooperation.......................................................................................62 </p><p>ANNEXMigrantSmugglingProtocolExtracts ...........................................................................64 </p><p>ANNEXRelevantUNODCResources.........................................................................................66 </p></li><li><p>IssuePaper:SmugglingofMigrantsbySea</p><p>Page6of71</p><p>Acknowledgements</p><p>ThisIssuePaperwasdraftedbyMsMarikaMcAdamunderthesupervisionofMsMorganeNicot(UNODC). Special thanks are also extended toMs Alexia Taveau andMr Fabrizio Sarrica ofUNODC for their inputs.This IssuePaperwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithout thegeneroussupportoftheFrenchgovernment.</p><p>This IssuePaperwasdrafted largelyon thebasisof answers received toquestionnaires anddiscussionsthattookplaceinthecontextofanexpertgroupmeetingheldinVienna,Austriaonthe13thtothe15thofSeptember2011.UNODCwouldliketoextenditssincerethankstothoseexpertswhogavetheirtimeandenthusiasmtothisprocess.TheircontributionstoandsupportoftheworkofUNODCaredeeplyappreciated.</p><p>MrSurangaAlgewatte</p><p>MrScottBjerregaard</p><p>MrGoranBorovnik</p><p>CommandantAlainBouedo</p><p>MrEnriqueCamargo</p><p>MrDarjoCizel</p><p>MrAlexanderDalli</p><p>MrAlessandroDiTolla</p><p>MrLarsHammarstedt</p><p>Lic.AnglicaHerreraRivero</p><p>MrTamerKstekli</p><p>MrPierreLapaque</p><p>LieutenantCommanderJeanLouisLebegueJones</p><p>CaptaineAlexandraLefebvre</p><p>Dr.PatriciaMallia</p><p>MajorClintonONeill</p><p>MsPlyumanthiPeiris</p><p>MrJulianPerez</p><p>AssistantSuperintendantAlfisSuhaili</p><p>MrLanceThomas</p><p>CommissaireMamadouThiandoum</p></li><li><p>IssuePaper:SmugglingofMigrantsbySea</p><p>Page7of71</p><p>ExecutiveSummary</p><p>SmugglingofmigrantsisdefinedbyArticle3oftheMigrantSmugglingProtocolsupplementingtheUnitedNationsTransnationalOrganizedCrimeConvention(UNTOC),as...theprocurement,inordertoobtain,directlyorindirectly,afinancialorothermaterialbenefit,oftheillegalentryofapersonintoastatepartyofwhichthepersonisnotanational.Thespecificnatureoftheseabasedcomponentofthesmuggling journeyresulted inadedicatedsectiononthe issue intheMigrantSmugglingProtocol.While smugglingby seaaccountsonly fora smallportionofoverallmigrant smuggling around theworld, theparticulardangersof irregular travel at seamake it a priority for response; thoughmoremigrant smuggling occurs by air,more deathsoccurbysea.</p><p>The journeyof themigrantsmuggledbyseaoftenstartsasignificantdistanceaway from thecoastofdeparture.Somejourneystothecoastmaytakemeredays,butotherscantakeplaceover years during which themigrantmust work en route to raisemoney for his passage.Arduousdesertcrossingsandvictimizationbysmugglersandothercriminalsenroutemeanthatsome do not survive overland journeys to the coast. Contrasted with these extremeexperiences,economicallyempoweredmigrantscanaffordahigher levelofsmugglingserviceand may experience no particular hardship, simply travelling through various internationalairporthubstowardthecoastalcountryfromwheretheirseajourneycommences.</p><p>The typeandsizeofvesselused tosmugglemigrantsbyseadependson the time,placeandfinancialcapacityofmigrantsundertaking thesmuggling journey. In somecountries,boatsofonlyahandfulofpassengersarecommonlyinterceptedbyauthorities,whileinothersvesselsofseveralhundredpeoplehavebeenused. Whilevoyagesmaybecomfortablewhenconditionsatseaaremildandthevesselisequippedwithadequatefood,waterandsanitation,thejourneyisaharrowingoneforthemajorityofmigrantswhoreportroughconditions,terriblecoldandscarcefoodandwater.</p><p>Thenatureofthecrimeanditsrelationshipwithsmugglingofmigrantsbylandandbyairmeansthat it isasuccessfulcrime type thatyieldshighprofits forsmugglerswithall the risksbeingbornebymigrants.Indeed,migrantsmugglingbyseacanbeunderstoodasacriminalbusiness,whichiscompetitivelyrunassuch.Smugglingbyseaisgenerallycarriedoutbyflexiblecriminalgroupsorindividualsoperatingonthebasisofrepeatedcontractualarrangements,ratherthanbyhierarchicalorganizations.</p><p>Therearetwomethodsusedwhenvesselsapproachcoastsofdestination.Oneaimstoreachlandbyevadingdetectionbyauthorities,theothersetsouttobedetectedand interceptedorrescuedbyauthorities interritorialwatersofdestinationcoastalcountries. Inbothsituations,detectingsmugglingvesselsatsea isakeychallengeforcoastalstateswhichmayhave limitedresourcesandlargesearchandrescueareasofresponsibility.</p><p>Upon detecting vessels, the key challenge is to balance objectives with obligations atinternational law, including the Migrant Smuggling Protocol. Smugglers are generally wellinformedaboutstatesprotectionobligationsandacttoexploitthem,instructingmigrantswhatto do upon interception to increase their chances of gaining entry into and remaining incountriesofdestination.For instance,officialsresponsiblefor interceptingvesselsatseahavebeenfacedwithsituationsofpeoplesabotagingtheirownvesselstoforceauthoritiestocarryout rescues. Suggestionsmade in respect of encounteringmigrant smuggling at sea include</p></li><li><p>IssuePaper:SmugglingofMigrantsbySea</p><p>Page8of71</p><p>increased support of coastal states through joint patrols and provision of resources, andincreased compliance with international legal standards and obligations in carrying outinterceptionsofsmugglingvesselsatsea.</p><p>Whilerespondingtothesituationathandandensuringthatpersonsonboardareappropriatelyassisted,akeychallenge is toseizeevidentiaryopportunities to investigatesmugglingrelatedcrimes.Thecomplexnatureofmigrant smugglingnetworksand theirmodusoperandimeansthatsmugglerscannotbeidentifiedpurelybylookingtosmugglerswhomaybeonboardboats;the transnationalcriminalnetwork itselfmustbe traced fromasmugglingvessel,back to thecoastofembarkation,andfromtherebacktocountriesoftransitandorigin.Suggestionsmadefor improved investigationandprosecutionofmigrant smugglingby sea includeharmonizingdomestic legislation with the UNTOC and the Migrant Smuggling Protocol. Further it issuggestedthatsentencesimposedforsmugglingoffencesbepublicizedasameansofdeterringwouldbe smugglers. Capacity building measures are also suggested so as to increaseidentification of smugglers on vessels, and to better link seabased crimeswith landbasedsmugglers.</p><p>Preventingmigrantsmugglingbysearequiresstatestobalancetheirobligationsininternationallawwith their legitimate interests inprotecting state sovereignty fromviolationbyorganizedcrime groups. But law enforcement efforts alone are not adequate to prevent migrantsmugglingbysea;theMigrantSmugglingProtocolstressesthatpreventioneffortsmustaddressrootcausesthatleadapersonintothehandsofsmugglersinthefirstplace.Suggestionsmadefor preventingmigrant smuggling at sea include raising awareness about the dangers of seasmuggling journeys and the criminality of smuggling. Suggestions are also made to raiseawarenessofthosewhoinfluencepoliticalandpolicydecisions,sopoliciesputinplaceprotectstate sovereignty,uphold internationalobligations, and arenot vulnerable toexploitationbysmugglers. Also emphasised is the responsibility of...</p></li></ul>

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