Smart Science Grade 5

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<ul><li>1.Smart ScienceGRADE 5TEXTBOOKPhilippine Copyright 2009 by DIWA LEARNING SYSTEMS INCAll rights reserved. Printed in the PhilippinesEditorial, design, and layout by University Press of First AsiaNo part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any meanselectronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage andretrieval systems, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.Exclusively distributed byDIWA LEARNING SYSTEMS INC4/F SEDCCO 1 Bldg.120 Thailand corner Legazpi StreetsLegaspi Village, 1229 Makati City, PhilippinesTel. No.: (632) 893-8501 * Fax: (632) 817-8700 ISBN: 9789714600935REVIEWERMarina Balce was a former assistant dean and associate professor at the College of Education, LaSalle CollegeAntipolo. She taught biological sciences for Psychology students and thesis writing forgraduating Education students in the same college. She was also a Trainee of the Japan InternationalCooperation Agency (JICA) at the Aichi University in Nagoya, Japan, where she attended a specialtraining on Practical Work in Elementary School Science. Dr. Balce finished her bachelors degree inSecondary Education major in Biology at the University of the EastManila. She has a masters degreein Biology Education from the De La Salle UniversityManila and a doctorate in Science Educationmajor in Biology from the University of the PhilippinesDiliman.</li></ul><p>2. To the LearnerDo you ask yourself questions about the world you live in? Do youwonder about what lies beyond the blue skies or what rests below theseas? Do you ask questions about the blooming trees and colorful owersyou see, the heat and cold you feel, or the various scents you smell? Doyou wonder about the sun, the moon, and the stars? Your young, activemind has so many questions because you are curious about so manythings.This book will help you discover the answers to the questions youhave about yourself, the world, and everything beyond it. This book willbe your constant companion as you unlock the many mysteries of lifethrough various learning experiences. Moreover, this book will teach youhow to apply the wonders of science to your day-to-day activities.Let this book help you nd the answers to the questions you haveabout yourself, your world, and your universe. Let this take you a stepcloser to understanding life and in discovering the wonders of science! 3. Unit 1The Reproductive, Respiratory, and Urinary SystemsChapter 1 The Human Reproductive SystemLesson 1The Male and the Female Reproductive Systems .........................................2Lesson 2Changes during Puberty ..............................................................................7Lesson 3Menstrual Cycle ........................................................................................11Lesson 4Taking Care of Your Reproductive Organs ................................................15Think Back.................................................................................................................17Measure Up! .................................................................................................................18Chapter 2 The Human Respiratory SystemLesson 1Parts and Functions of the Human Respiratory System ..............................19Lesson 2Inhalation and Exhalation ..........................................................................25Lesson 3Common Respiratory Ailments..................................................................29Think Back.................................................................................................................33Measure Up! .................................................................................................................33Chapter 3 The Human Urinary SystemLesson 1Parts and Functions of the Human Urinary System ....................................35Lesson 2How the Urinary System Works ................................................................39Lesson 3Some Urinary Ailments .............................................................................43Think Back.................................................................................................................47Measure Up! .................................................................................................................47Unit 2Animal and Plant GroupsChapter 4 The Animal GroupLesson 1What Animals Eat .....................................................................................50Lesson 2Body Parts That Animals Use in Eating ......................................................54Lesson 3Animal Adaptations ..................................................................................58Lesson 4Vertebrates................................................................................................63Lesson 5Invertebrates .............................................................................................70Think Back.................................................................................................................76Measure Up! .................................................................................................................76Chapter 5 The Plant GroupLesson 1The Needs of Plants to Produce Food ........................................................78Lesson 2Photosynthesis ..........................................................................................85Lesson 3Importance of Plants .................................................................................89Lesson 4Plant Adaptations ......................................................................................93Lesson 5Classifying Plants ......................................................................................97 4. Think Back...............................................................................................................101Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................102Unit 3Matter, Energy, and MachinesChapter 6 Changes in MatterLesson 1Physical Changes ....................................................................................106Lesson 2Chemical Changes ..................................................................................114Lesson 3Agents Causing Changes in Matter ..........................................................118Lesson 4The Changing Environment .....................................................................122Lesson 5Controlling the Destructive Changes in the Environment.........................127Think Back...............................................................................................................131Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................131Chapter 7 Electric EnergyLesson 1Static Electricity.......................................................................................133Lesson 2Electric Circuit ........................................................................................139Lesson 3Series Connection and Parallel Connection .............................................143Lesson 4Generation of Electric Energy ..................................................................147Lesson 5Electricity and Magnetism .......................................................................151Lesson 6Using Electric Energy Wisely ...................................................................155Think Back...............................................................................................................158Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................159Chapter 8 MachinesLesson 1Levers .....................................................................................................161Lesson 2Classes of Levers .....................................................................................166Lesson 3Inclined Planes .......................................................................................170Lesson 4Wedges ..................................................................................................173Lesson 5Screws ....................................................................................................176Lesson 6Wheel and Axle ......................................................................................179Lesson 7Pulleys ....................................................................................................182Lesson 8Proper Use of Machines ..........................................................................185Think Back...............................................................................................................187Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................187Unit 4Earth and Its WeatherChapter 9 Rocks and SoilLesson 1Characteristics of Rocks ..........................................................................190Lesson 2Igneous Rocks: The Hot Rocks .............................................................195 5. Lesson 3Sedimentary Rocks: The Cool or Wet Rocks......................................199Lesson 4Metamorphic Rocks: The Changed Rocks ............................................204Lesson 5Rock Cycle .............................................................................................207Lesson 6Weathering and Soil Formation ...............................................................211Think Back...............................................................................................................214Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................214Chapter 10Weather ConditionsLesson 1Water Cycle ............................................................................................216Lesson 2Sunlight and Weather .............................................................................220Lesson 3Tropical Cyclones ...................................................................................225Lesson 4Before, During, and After a Cyclone .......................................................230Lesson 5Public Storm Warning Signals .................................................................233Lesson 6Safety Precautions ...................................................................................237Think Back...............................................................................................................240Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................240Unit 5Our Solar SystemChapter 11About the SunLesson 1The Sun, a Star ........................................................................................244Lesson 2Sunspots .................................................................................................249Lesson 3Uses of Solar Energy ...............................................................................251Think Back...............................................................................................................253Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................254Chapter 12The Solar SystemLesson 1Members of the Solar System ..................................................................255Lesson 2The Planets in Orbit ................................................................................260Lesson 3Planets and Their Distances from the Sun................................................263Lesson 4Planets and Their Periods of Revolution ..................................................266Lesson 5Asteroids, Meteoroids, and Comets .........................................................269Think Back...............................................................................................................273Measure Up! ...............................................................................................................274Glossary .............................................................................................................................. 276Bibliography ........................................................................................................................ 279Index ................................................................................................................................... 281 6. Unit 1The Reproductive, Respiratory, and Urinary SystemsThe human body is able to perform many tasks. These tasks aremade possible by the different body systems. Although each body systemperforms a specic function, the different body systems work in closecoordination with one another. They sustain and regulate different lifeprocesses such as reproduction, adaptation, growth, and development.In this unit, you will study three important body systemsthereproductive, respiratory, and urinary systems. You will study the parts ofthese body systems and their functions. You will also learn how to takegood care of them. 7. Chapter 1 The Human Reproductive System Have you ever wondered how a new human being develops inside the femalebody? As you proceed with the lessons in this unit, you will be amazed to find outthat life starts out as a fertilized cell. This cell is the result of the union of the male andfemale sex cells.Lesson 1The Male and the Female Reproductive Systems Find Out1.What are the parts of the male and the female reproductive systems?2.What are the functions of each part?Humans, being living things, are able to reproduce offspring of their own kind.No two offspring, however, are the same. The ability of humans to reproduce ensurestheir continued existence on Earth. Humans have body parts called organs that enable us to reproduce. These organshave coordinated functions that form a body system, called the reproductive system.In this lesson, you will learn about the structures of the reproductive organs and theirspecic functions. The reproductive system of males differs from that of females. Look at the twoillustrations below.ureterbladderovum inside fallopian tube the ovary ovaryseminal vesicleprostate glandpenisCowpers glandurethrawall ofendometriumforeskinepididymis uterus uterusscrotumsperm inside sperm cervix ovumthe testis vaginaMale reproductive systemFemale reproductive system2Smart Science 5 8. Each reproductive organ has a specic function in the reproductive process.Table 1.1 lists the parts of the male reproductive system.Table 1.1Parts of the Male Reproductive System and Their FunctionsOrgan Description/Location Function Testis (plural: testes)usually consists of a pair; each testis produces sperm cells andconsists of many highly coiled tu...</p>