sharing and communication around household energy consumption

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Sharing and Communication around Household Energy Consumption. Tawanna Dillahunt Advisor: Jennifer Mankoff HCI Institute Carnegie Mellon University. U.S. households consume over 21.7% of total U.S. energy and generate over 21.1% of total U.S. carbon emissions [Gardner, et. al , 2008]. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Sharing and Communication around Household Energy ConsumptionTawanna DillahuntAdvisor: Jennifer MankoffHCI InstituteCarnegie Mellon University

Tawanna Dillahunt , fourth year PhD, HCI Institute @ CMU - Advisor Prof Jen Mankoff. (my talk is entitled.)

In HCI, contributions can be in the form of CS, design, and behavioral/psychology thus far, my contributions have been design and psychology.

Here at the DC, Id like to receive feedback on potential technical contributions as well as to help clarify and shape my proposal, which I have yet to present

Now Im going to present my work and Ill start off with what motivated me to do this work1U.S. households consume over 21.7% of total U.S. energy and generate over 21.1% of total U.S. carbon emissions [Gardner, et. al, 2008]Removed picture due to file sizeAs you know, energy use and its impact on the environment is a topic of global concern

In countries like the U.S. with high per-capita energy use, households consume 21.7% of total U.S. energy and generate 21.1% of total U.S. carbon emissions.

As a result, we chose to study households; specifically, low-income households.

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://bullfrogbuilders.com/library/SmokeStack2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://bullfrogbuilders.com/about_us.html&usg=__rBfozCCqxkDAdTkFOwNuRTb4tLA=&h=394&w=600&sz=17&hl=en&start=339&um=1&tbnid=FQM492qgIDpmbM:&tbnh=89&tbnw=135&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dhome%2Benergy%2Bconsumption%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN%26start%3D320%26um%3D1

2Low-Income Households30% of U.S. households make < $30K/year [US Census, 2009]

Spend greater percentages of income on energy than affluent households [Cooper et al., 1983]

Median consumption almost as much as affluent households [Shui 2002]

3Removed picture due to file size[read slide]

Additionally, few details are available about how low-income households manage their energy use.

3Research GapLow-income individuals are among those more likely to live in rental housing [Belsky and Drew, 2007; McArdle, 2009]Renters constitute 30% of U.S. households [Current Housing Reports, 2008]Few studies (at the time) targeted low-income households and renters [Chetty, et. al, 2008]

4[read first 2 bullets]

Ubicomp research and technology definitely exists in this domain and there have been decades of research in this area, specifically in environmental psychology. At the time, HCI research in this area had explored more affluent households and those identifying as green. But these studies have missed low-income households even though low-income households account for 30% of the population.

4Research QuestionsWhat are the dynamics of low-income households in terms of energy consumption?How can household electricity monitoring devices most effectively work within the dynamics of a low-income household?Can we mine energy monitoring data in order to provide advice about inefficiencies in energy use?

5Given the focus of the current research, you may see that household electricity monitoring devices may unintentionally tailor to certain populations

Without knowledge of the dynamics affecting energy conservation in low-income communities, interventions will be less effective and programs that attempt to reach out to this community will fail to engage a large segment of the population.

As a result, we ask the following research questions: [read slide].

These questions led us to the following thesis statement

5Thesis StatementEco-visualizations designed to allow individuals tocompare their consumption with others, to provide advice about inefficiencies and to actively engage around actions that affect energy consumption will:

encourage social interactionraise awareness of energy conservative behaviors help residents to negotiate energy use issues with stakeholders (landlords, housemates, community members)

66What are the dynamics of low-income households in terms of energy consumption?7First, Ill discuss my prior work to understand the dynamics of low-income households in terms of energy consumption7Qualitative Studies of Energy UseStudy 1Energy Use in Low-Income Households [Dillahunt, et. al, Ubicomp 2009]

Study 2Conflicts Between Landlords and Tenants [Dillahunt, et. al, Ubicomp 2010]

8We conducted two qualitative studies8Do prior findings generalize to this community?Motivations for saving energy?Existing barriers?How can we enhance technology to serve low-income communities?

Study 19In the first study, we asked the following questions:

Our goal was to gather data to drive the design of new energy saving technologies

9Photo-elicitation study [Clark-Ibez, 2004]CameraPen and Notebook to write about experiences

Take pictures of objects and/or scenarios that make you think about personal energy use or anything that makes you think about energyStudy Design10Removed picture due to file sizeWe conducted a photo-elicitation study to understand how low-income individuals perceived energy. We gave them the task to [read slide]

As a part of our study, we instructed participants to: [read bottom]

(disposable cameras)A picture of their thermostat A picture of where they thought their energy comes from A picture of a close friend or family member consuming energy

Participants were assured that there were no right or wrong answers to this exercise and werent given a total number of pictures to take other than the 3 required photos. Participants were given 1 week with their cameras and were told to treat the cameras as if they were diaries. After 1 week, I picked up participants cameras, had them developed, and scheduled their interviews a couple of days later.

Note that all of the pictures that follow were taken by our participants.1026 participants across two locations15 NC participants11 PA participantsDiverse payment structuresPay energy in fullReceive stipendPay no energyReceive allocation

Study Design11Removed picture due to file size We recruited 26 participants in total and the first part of the study was done in Eastern, NC, the second part of the study in Pittsburgh, PA

Some of our participants paid for energy bills, while others did not have to pay and yet another group of participants received a partial stipend for their energy. (those not paying for their energy received no feedback at all about how much they are consuming)11FindingsParticipants received very little feedbackSaving energy occurred even if participants did not pay for energy (prior habits)Key factors leading to environmental behaviors in low-income householdsExternal barriersFuture generationsReligious beliefsConflict between landlords and tenants around energy consumption

12Removed picture due to file sizewe provided concrete data on how habits, contextual factors and motivational techniques such as feedback affect environmental behaviors in low-income communities.

An open question is whether certain factors such as habits and contextual factors have a stronger impact on environmental behavior in lower-income communities than others? We also saw how low-income households compared to more affluent households ;the difference in the severe challenges they faced.

These findings are our basis for our next study

. 12FindingsParticipants received very little feedbackSaving energy occurred even when participants did not pay for energy (prior habits)Key factors leading to environmental behaviors in low-income householdsExternal barriersFuture generationsReligious beliefsConflict between landlords and tenants around energy consumption

13Removed picture due to file sizewe provided concrete data on how habits, contextual factors and motivational techniques such as feedback affect environmental behaviors in low-income communities.

An open question is whether certain factors such as habits and contextual factors have a stronger impact on environmental behavior in lower-income communities than others? We also saw how low-income households compared to more affluent households ;the difference in the severe challenges they faced.

These findings are our basis for our next study

. 13FindingsParticipants received very little feedbackSaving energy occurred even if participants did not pay for energy (prior habits)Key factors leading to environmental behaviors in low-income householdsExternal barriersFuture generationsReligious beliefsConflict exists between landlords and tenants around energy consumption

14Removed picture due to file sizewe provided concrete data on how habits, contextual factors and motivational techniques such as feedback affect environmental behaviors in low-income communities.

An open question is whether certain factors such as habits and contextual factors have a stronger impact on environmental behavior in lower-income communities than others? We also saw how low-income households compared to more affluent households ;the difference in the severe challenges they faced.

These findings are our basis for our next study

. 14Study 2Interviewed landlords to get a balanced perspectiveStory-telling and role play sessions to understand both perspectives

15Removed picture due to file sizeRemoved picture due to file size. We interviewed landlords to get a balanced perspective and used role play and story-telling techniques to understand how both parties interacted with each other and dealt with issues around energy consumption

15Sources of ConflictTenants 1Photos + InterviewsLandlordsInterviewsTenants 2Role-PlayingExpectations

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