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RECENT ADVANCES IN CULTIVATION AND PROCESSING OF RUBBERSUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:Dr. K. C. Mohapatra Srikanta Kumar SahuDEPT. OF FRUIT SC. Adm. No.-05FSC/14 1st Yr M.Sc(Ag)
INTRODUCTION:Rubber is a prominent plantation crop of considerable significance to the Indian economy. This industrial crop has since emerged as an icon of small holders stake in the plantation sector of our country. Natural Rubber tapped from the bark of the treeHevea brasiliensisis which is the raw material for an industry manufacturing about 50,000 products. The consumption pattern of rubber in our country is highly in favour of natural rubber (76 %), quite contrary to the global consumption of synthetic rubber of about 53%.
ContORIGIN & DISTRIBUTION:Rubber had long been in historical plant. Since Columbus had discovered America in 1495 (509 yearsago), Red Indian , ancient tribe of South of America, called it ' Caoutchoue ' . Meaning is ' Crying Tree ' . The reason is that when it is cut off with knife or sharpen tools, its natural latex automatically comes out as a tear of tree.A native to Brazil, rubber was introduced to India in 1873 and its commercial cultivation started in 1902.
AREA & PRODUCTION:WORLD SCENARIOCountryProduction in lakh tonne% share in global productionThailand30.631.4Indonesia28.028.8Malaysia12.012.3India8.18.3Vietnam6.06.2China6.06.2Others6.66.8World97.3 INDIAN SCENARIORegionShare in Area ( % )*Share in Production (%)*TraditionalKerala & Kanyakumari district of Tamilnadu83.6494.14Non Traditionala. NE states11.313.75b.Other nontraditional states5.052.11WORLD SCENARIOSOURCE: Rubber board, Kerla (2011-12)4IMPORTANT SPECIES: Havea brassiliensis (para rubber)
Ficus elastica (indian rubber)
ContManihot glaziovii ( ceara rubber)
Castiola elastica (panama rubber)
ContTaxacum sps dandelion_rubber
Parthenium argentatuma (guayel rubber)
Hevea brasiliensis is a diploid (2n=36, x=9), perennial, monoecious and cross-pollinated tree species. It belongs to the genusHeveaand the botanical family Euphorbiaceae.FLOWER:Flowers are borne in many-flowered, axillary, shortly pubescent panicles on the basal parts of the new flush. Flowers are small, scented, unisexual and shortly-stalked, with larger bell-shaped female flowers at the terminal ends of main and lateral branches, and more numerous smaller male flowers, with 60-80 males to each female flower.Flowering takes place over a period of about two weeks with some male flowers opening first, lasting for one day and then dropping, followed by female flowers open for 3-5 days; the remainder of male flowers then open.
CONT.FRUITS AND SEEDSOnly a small proportion of female flowers set fruit and of these 30-50% fall off after a month, and more fall off later.The mature fruit is a large, compressed, 3-lobbed capsule, 3-5cm in diameter, with 3 oil-containing seeds.The capsule bursts open at the end of the rainy season with a characteristic loud bang, similar to a rifle shot. The seeds are then collected for sowing in the nursery.
VARIETIES:Tjir 1, PB 86, BD 5, BD 10, PR 17, GT 1, RRII 105, RRIM 600, PB 28/59, PB 217, PB 235, RRIM 703, RRII 5, PCK-1, 2 and PB 260RRII-105(HYV,80%)SOIL:Rubber grows well in highly weathered soils consisting of lateritic soils.It prefers well drained porous soils which are moderate to highly acidic in nature. Soils must have a minimum depth of 1 m without any intervening hard pan or impenetrable layer. Water table should be well below 1 m to ensure good aeration for root penetration.Ph-4.5-6
AGRO CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTSCan be grown- 10*N to 10*S lattitudeRainfall->2000mmTemperature-25-28*CHumidity-80%Sunshine-2000hrs/year @ 6hrs/dayWeather condition-warm & moistCold weather & high wind speed-affect production
PROPAGATION:Prepare a raised bed by cultivating and pulverizing the soil into fine tilth and raising it to 15 cm high from the ground level and 10 cm thick fine river sand or aged sawdust is added into it. The seeds are spread in the seedbed. The seeds are covered by putting a layer of fine river sand or aged sawdust to a thickness of about 1.5 cm.SEED PROPAGATION
ContSTAGES OF SEED GERMINATION
Emergence of RadicleSeed starts to develop spider rootsEmergence of stem without leavesFully developed root system andemergence of leavesFULLY DEVELOPEDGREEN BUDDINGSTEPS
Wipe the base of the stocks with a piece of cloth
Make two parallel vertical cuts at the base of the rootstock stem, 7.5 cm long and 1 cm apart, and about 3 cm from the ground.Cont
Join the two parallel vertical cuts by a horizontal cut either at the upper or lower end.
Strip off bark either upward or downward depending on where the horizontal cut was made.Cont
Cut away the bark leaving 1 cm as tongue to hold the bud patch in position
Extract bud patch from the bud stick by making similar incisions made on the rootstock but a little bit smaller to fit in. The inner side of the budpatch must not be touched, dirtied, bent, bruised or exposed too long.Cont
Insert immediately the budpatch in the budding panel made on the rootstock, ensuring at the same time that the budpatch is not places upside-down.
Secure the budpatch firmly by tying a piece of transparent budding tape of about 2 cm wide and 30 cm in length.Cont
Open the budding tape 21 days after budding. Green budpatch indicates successful budding operation whereas brown or black budpatch indicates budding failure.
Cut-back the rootstock stem 10 cm above the end of the budding panel seven days after opening of the budding tape. The scion is expected to sprout in two or three weeks.YOUNG BUDDING:In young budding technique, the seedling stock is raised in polybags of 18 cm x 38 cm lay flat dimension. When seedlings are about ten weeks old having basal stem diameter of 6 mm, they are ready for young budding operation. The buds used are also green but much younger in age and smaller in size than is normally used in green budding.
NURSERY:Nurseries are maintained for raising seedlings, budded plants and bud wood. Beds are prepared 60-120 cm wide and of convenient length with path ways laid in between to facilitate manuring, watering, weeding etc.Spacing in the nursery according to the type of planting materials is as follows:For raising seedling stumps: 23 x 23, 30 x 30 or 34 x 20 cm For budded stumps: 30 x 30 cm For stumped buddings: 60 x 60 cm For bud wood nurseries: 90 x 90 or 60 x 120 cm
ContTYPES OF NURSERYBud stick multiplication nursery (ground nursery)Budded stump nursery (ground nursery)Budded stump in polybag nurseryYoung budding nurseryHigh budding nurseryCore stump nurseryHigh density frame nursery (ground nursery)
LAND PREPARATION & LAYOUT:The area selected should be cleared of wild growth. Silt pits of dimension 120x45x60 cm may be taken along the contour at suitable intervals to check erosion and to conserve water. Square planting is suitable for level and near level lands. Rectangular system with planting lines oriented in the East West direction can be adopted in flat lands and slopes. In undulating and hilly areas, planting should be done in rows across the slope along the contour lines.The planting density recommended is 420 to 500 plants per hectare. Standard pits of 75 cm3 are dug in advance and filled with top soil, 12 kg organic matter and 175 g of rock phosphate. Planting is done in the centre of the pit with shade and mulch provided.
TYPES OF PLANTING:i. Seed-at-stake planting: Planting seeds in situ is not found very successful in the country.
ii. Stump planting: Seedlings raised in nurseries are transplanted after pruning the stem at a height of 45-60 cm from the collar.
iii. Polybag plants: These plants are raised in two ways.
(a) Raise stock seedlings in polybags and afterwards green bud them at the appropriate stage and transplant.
(b) Green budded stumps are planted in polybags of appropriate size and transplanted.In both the cases, transplanting can be done when the plants attain either 2-3 whorls or 6-7 whorls of leaves.
iv. Budded stump planting: Seedlings raised in nurseries are budded and transplanted after pruning the stem at about 8 cm from the bud patch.
Planting materialSpacing (m)Population / haBudded plantsHilly areas6.7 X 3.4445Plains4.9 X 4.9420SeedlingsHilly areas6.1 X 3.0539Plains4.6 X 4.6479MANURING:For immature rubber trees at pre-tapping stageApply 12 kg of compost or FYM and 120 g of rock phosphate in each pit before planting. Apply 10:10:4:1.5 NPK andMg as per schedule given below:
Months after plantingPeriod of applicationQuantity per plant10:10:412:12:63September/October225 g190 kg9April/May445 g380 kg15September/October450 g380 kg21April/May450 g480 kg27September/October550 g480 kg33April/May550 g380 kg39September/October450 g380 kgApply 400 kg of mixture/ha in 2 doses, once in April/May and another in September/October from the 5th year till the tree is ready for tapping.ContMatured rubber trees under tapping
For matured rubber trees under tapping apply NPK 10:10:10 grade mixtures at the rate of 900 g/tree (300 kg/ha) every year in two split doses. Add 10 kg commercial Magnesium sulphate for every 100 kg of the above mixture if there is magnesium deficiency.PRUNING:Pruning to a height of 2.0-2.5m allows the development of a smooth trunk without branches or large scars. In polybag budding; allow the plant to grow without branches until 2.0- 2.5 m from union, then prune. Pruning also allows the development of a balanced canopy. Maintain 4-5 well-spaced branches to avoid wind damage