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  • 1.Romanesque

2. Introduction This style appeared during the Middle Ages It is the first style that can be found all overEurope, The expansion of the style was linked to thepilgrimages, mainly to Santiago di Compastela. 3. Introduction Romanesque art developed because of The end of Barbarian invasions The decomposition of Cordobas government The establishment of peace in the Christian world, with the development of the cities, commerce and industry. 4. Expansion The factors of the expansion ofRomanesque art were: Development of a feudal system,that demanded works (castles) The expansion of religious orders(Benedictines), developed the monasteries The pilgrimage routes The crusades 5. FUEDAL SYSTEM 6. TIMBER FRAMING 7. Typologies There are three main types of buildings: MonasteriesCastlesChurches 8. Monastery It was designed as the City of God They had several functional areas: Church Cloister Chapter room Abbots house Monks/ nuns rooms Refectory Hospital 9. Church It was the main building It symbolized Gods kingdom The holiest part was the apse It had cross shape Symbolism was important: Circular parts reflect perfection so they werelinked to God Squared parts are related to the human. 10. Church Characteristics: Monumental, trying to imitate the Roman models inthe Pilgrimage churches Small in country churches They were designed for advertising Catholic church They were lasting, made of stone Plans could be: Latin cross Polygonal Basilical Latin cross Polygonal Basilical 11. Church Parts of the plan 12. Church Parts from the outside 13. Church Elevation: The church is covered bystoned vaults Wall are thick They need strongbuttresses Foundations are strong Few windows 14. ChurchClerestory Interior elevation: itconsists of three levels: First floor with columns orcross-shaped pillarsTribune Second floor with thetribune (corridor overlooking the nave, over theaisles) Clerestory: area ofPillarwindows opening to the Column outside. 15. Interior of a RomanesqueCathedral 16. Church Type of covers:Barrel vault: it wasused mainly to coverthe central naveGroin vault wascommon in aisles andambulatoryDome: spherical were usedin apses. The central couldstand on pendentives orsquinches 17. Romanesque in France It was the originalregion ofRomanesque art It appeared in Clunysabbey From there itexpanded thanks tothe pilgrimage routes,specially to Santiagoin Spain. 18. Romanesque in France Burgundy: barrel-Clunyvaulted, three-aisledbasilica Normandy: Lombardinfluences withgroined vaultssupported by flyingbuttresses andfaades with twoflanking towers.Sainte Magdalene, Vezelay 19. Romanesque in France It is characterized byvarious vaulted styles Provence: pointed domesSaintand faades decoratedTrophime , Arleswith arches Auvergne with long choir,side aisles around thesemicircular sanctuaryforming the ambulatory inwhich radiating chapelsSaint SerninopenToulouse 20. ST. DENIS PARIS 21. St. Filibert, France, 10c 22. Romanesque in Italy Italian provincesdeveloped a greatdiversity of architecturalstyles Lombardy with groined vaults of heavy proportionsSaint Ambroggio, Milan Central Italy classical decorative elements: Corinthian capitals, coloured marble, open arches, colonnades and galleries and faades with sculptures Saint Miniato, Florence 23. Romanesque in Italy South with Byzantineand Arabic influenceusing mosaics,interlaced pointed-Cefalu, Sicilyarches. 24. Romanesque in Italy South with Byzantineand Arabic influences,using mosaics,interlaced pointed-Cefalu, Sicilyarches. Three separate buildings: church, baptistery and bell tower. Pisa Cathedral, in Tuscany, presents three separate buildings. 25. BAPTISTRY-FLORENCE 26. Romanesque in Germany Churches were planned on a large scale They used to be very high They had an apse or sanctuary at each end. Numerous round or octagonal towers thatconferred them a picturesque silhouette.Worms 27. Church of St. Sebaldus, Nrnberg 28. Romanesque in England Long, narrow buildings were constructed with heavy walls and piers, rectangular apses, double transepts and deeply recessed portals Naves were covered with flat roofs, later replaces by vaults, and side aisles were covered with groined vaults. 29. Romanesque in England Before the 10th centurywere made of wood Stone buildings weresmall and roughlyconstructed The NormanRomanesque stylereplace the Saxon in 11thcentury 30. DURHAM CATHEDRAL 31. CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL 32. CANTERBURY CATHEDRAL 33. WESTMINSTER ABBEY 34. The flying buttress 35. Romanesque in Spain First Romanesque:Catalonia In the 11th centurythe region was almostassimilated to France Due to this theyreceive the art early The rest of the Spainwould receive it withthe pilgrimage 36. Romanesque in Spain Catalan churchespresent, in the outside,ordered volumes Wall are decorated withLombard bands, andblind arches and galleries The plan has threenaves, with a smallnarthex The head has triple apse 37. Spanish Castle, 14c 38. Romanesque in Spain There are polygonalbuildings too They are related to theTemple They are inspired inJerusalems HolySepulchre Examples are Eunate,Torres del Rio (both inNavarre) and Veracruz(Segovia). 39. Romanesque in Spain Castile and Leon: It is deeply influencedby the pilgrimageroutes The churches areidentified with thespirit of theReconquist 40. Romanesque in Spain Buildings are simpleand small It created a contrastin relation to therefined HispanoMuslin architecture. They frequently havea covered area in theoutside for themeetings of thecouncils. 41. Romanesque in Spain The best examples are: Santiagos cathedral Fromista Sant Climent de Tahull San Pere de Roda San Juan de la Pea There are other buildingssuch as castles (Loarre,in Huesca) or bridges,essential for pilgrims(Puentelarreina, Navarre) 42. castles 43. Castle Castles were defensive constructions They were fortified for providing shelter The wall was one of the essential elements They tend to be build in stepped areas, easier to defend. 44. MOTT AND BAILEY 45. STARTED BY THE NORMANS 46. STONE CASTLE 47. WARWICK 48. AVILA 49. CARCASSONNE 50. Cathedral of Mont-Saint Michel:A Fortress & A Church 51. DURHAM CASTLE 52. DURHAM CASTLE 53. LUMLEY CASTLE 54. THE WHITE TOWER LONDON 55. CHAPEL OF ST. JOHN