Representing the Plant Science Industry Water the Plant Science Industry Water Matters ... Water used in irrigation accounts for 90% of ... irrigation and water management technology clearly must be

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<ul><li><p>Representing the Plant Science Industry</p><p>Water Matters</p><p>Water Mattersfor Sustainable Agriculture</p><p>A collection of case studies </p></li><li><p>Water Mattersfor Sustainable Agriculture</p><p>A collection of case studies </p><p>April 2004</p></li><li><p>"UNEP applauds all efforts from the private sector to encourage environmentally sound technologies in the field of water conservationand water use savings in agricultural practices."Klaus Tpfer, Executive Director,United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).</p><p>"Freshwater is one of the world's most precious, yet most threatenednatural resources. Canada is fortunate to be home to about 20% ofthe world's freshwater, however only 7% of that water is renewable.In this country, agriculture-based water withdrawals return less than30% back to sources. It is simple math that if we continue to takemore than we give back, even our seemingly abundant water stores willbe threatened with depletion. I am pleased to see the efforts CropLifeInternational and its partners are undertaking to address this criticalissue."The Honourable David Anderson, P.C., M.P., Minister of the Environment, Canada.</p><p>The engagement of the agricultural sector in water management innovations will be essential for the protection of water sources andecosystems.Achim Steiner, Director General,IUCN The World Conservation Union.</p><p>The WBCSD recognizes the weight of agricultural water use in thebalance of water management worldwide and welcomes this informativeinitiative to promote understanding of how the plant science industry is contributing to the protection and more efficient use of water resources.Bjrn Stigson, President,World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD).</p><p>Water is essential for food security and essential for food production.Research must provide for innovation that makes water as food andwater for food more accessible to the poor. Crop science and institutionalinnovations play the key roles in accomplishing this critical goal.Joachim von Braun, Director General,International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).</p><p>4</p></li><li><p>5</p><p>I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Water and Agriculture in Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8</p><p>II. Research and Innovation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9</p><p>III. Improved Land Management Systems increase Water Use Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12</p><p>IV. Water Body Protection, including Management of Alien Species . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14</p><p>V. Promoting Good Agricultural Practices to Protect Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16</p><p>VI. Community Programmes Relating to Water and Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20</p><p>VII. CropLife at a glance and contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22</p><p>Table of Contents</p></li><li><p> The plant science industry is committed to being part of the solutionto protecting the planets water resources through activities, whichcontribute to water use efficiency and water protection in agriculture.</p><p>Water is central and vital to life. However, over a billion people live without accessto safe water supply and sanitation. Global demand for water is estimated tohave risen over six times from 1900 to 1995, more than double the rate of populationgrowth, while more water is being removed from rivers and groundwater than isbeing naturally replaced. As world population grows and global food productionincreases to meet demand, water management in agriculture, which accounts forapproximately 70% of all water use, is becoming one of the key collective </p><p>challenges to achieving sustainable development worldwide. Given its importance,the eleventh session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable</p><p>Development (CSD 11), in April-May 2003, chose water, together with sanitation andhuman settlements, as the first post-World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) areato focus actions on in the 2004-2005 period.</p><p>Land management and advanced technologies can help maximise the crop per drop thatfarmers produce worldwide. Water used in irrigation accounts for 90% of agricultural waterdemand. Improving irrigation systems is therefore crucial to making contributions to watersavings in agriculture. As the international community noted at the Earth Summit in Rio in1992, the agricultural sector must not only provide food for a rising population, but also savewater for other uses. The challenge is to develop and apply technology and managementapproaches that enhance water use efficiency and protect water quality. The plant scienceindustry, represented through CropLife International, accepts its responsibility in stepping upto this challenge through its activities that contribute to water use efficiency and water protection in agriculture.</p><p>Actions should be taken at all levels to Promote programmes to enhance in a sustainablemanner the productivity of land and the efficient use of water resources in agriculture...especially through indigenous and local community-based approaches WSSD Plan of Implementation, paragraph 38(d) Johannesburg 2000</p><p>CropLife International has produced this publication of water-related case studies fromaround the world to increase awareness on the issue. They bring to light possible water savingapproaches and good practices for water management as recommended in Agenda 21.Theseinclude strategies to conserve water resources, prevent water pollution and protect aquaticecosystems.</p><p>CropLife International has also asked other partners in the agribusinesssector and relevant stakeholders to contribute good water managementexamples. We particularly welcome the case studies submitted by theInternational Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA) and the University ofCape Town, South Africa.</p><p>As the University of Cape Town case study and the industry case studiesrelating to drought and stress resistance research illustrate, plant biotechnologies offer great potential to improve plants water use efficiency. However these technologies are at this point in theresearch and development stage and their applicability in the field stillneeds to be demonstrated. Thorough testing before their release is anintegral part of their development. </p><p>I. Introduction</p><p>6</p></li><li><p>Herbicides play a major role in water conservation. They are used incrop management to control weeds, which compete with crops forwater, light and nutrients, and thus contribute significantly to a moreefficient use of water during crop growth. Additionally, land managementapproaches that improve water retention such as conservation tillageoften make use of herbicides. Herbicides are also the basis of innovativerice production practices which require less water than traditional production systems. These systems are already in place in many countriesand are good examples that indicate the way forward. The use of herbicides is also an important tool to efficiently control invading alienplants that threaten scarce water resources.</p><p>In any agricultural production system the promotion of good agricultural practices and productstewardship1 is fundamental for sustainable agriculture. Industry is part of various multi-stakeholder partnership initiatives that support efforts to protect water quality. Theseinclude reducing soil erosion, avoiding pesticide run-off and maintaining wildlife habitats aspart of a holistic farm or land management approach.</p><p>CropLife International, its member associations and leading companies and its agribusinesspartners are proud to be promoting good agricultural practices and product stewardship toensure clean and safe water supplies and to contribute to water use efficiency in agriculturethrough the development of new technologies. The case studies in this publicationdemonstrate the plant science Industrys and its partners commitment to respond to thewater challenge. They are examples intended to inspire others to follow suit and build upon.</p><p>Water resources are essential for satisfying basic human needs, health and food production,energy, and the restoration and maintenance of ecosystems, and for social and economicdevelopment in general, and sustainable agriculture and rural development. </p><p>CSD-8, 2000, Decision on Agriculture, paragraph 34.</p><p>The Millennium Declaration pledged to halve, by the year 2015, theproportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinkingwater. It also promised to stop the unsustainable exploitation of waterresources, by developing water management strategies which promote both equitable access and adequate supplies, UN MillenniumDevelopment Goals</p><p>7</p><p>1 Product stewardship is the responsible and ethical management of a plant protection or biotechnology product throughout its lifecycle from research, development, manufacture, distribution and use throughto the disposal of any waste.</p><p> The plant science industry is responding to the collective challenge to achieving sustainabledevelopment worldwide by promoting awareness of management practices and approachesthat protect and save water resources, through good agricultural practices.</p></li><li><p>Domestic 9%</p><p>Agricultural 71%</p><p>Water use by sector</p><p>Industial 20%</p><p>Water use within agricultural systems, primarily irrigation, account foralmost 70% of global water withdrawals. This amounts is expected toincrease in the next thirty years to support the expected 20% increasein the amount of land devoted to irrigation. Irrigation water use efficiency is currently about 38% worldwide and is expected to improve to an average of 42% by 2030, using technology and improvedirrigation water management practices. Also by 2030, it is projectedthat 60% of all land with irrigation potential will be in use. Currently,irrigated land accounts for approximately one fifth of the total arablearea in developing countries and developing countries account forapproximately 75% of the worlds irrigated areas2. Given this situation, numerous changes in current water use trends</p><p>must be undertaken to achieve a sustainable water scenario.3 Investments inirrigation and water management technology clearly must be undertaken toachieve this scenario. The adoption of advanced farming techniques, investmentin crop research, technological change, rural infrastructure and reform ofwater management to boost water productivity and the growth of crop yieldsin rainfed farming are additional necessary components. The case studies included in the following pages point to new directions forcrop research and crop management strategies to improve the efficiency ofwater use in the agricultural sector. The farming techniques, research and multistakeholder approaches discussed in this collection of case studies provideexamples of some of the actions that can and must be taken to achieve a sustainable water scenario.</p><p>Water and Agriculture in Context</p><p>8</p><p>2 The UN World Water Development Report: Water For People, Water For Life, World WaterAssessment Programme, UNESCO Publishing (2003) </p><p>3 Global Water Outlook to 2025: Averting an Impending Crisis (2002), by the International Food PolicyResearch Institute (IFPRI) and the International Water Management Institute (IWMI),presents three alternative scenarios (business-as-usual, water crisis and sustainable water scenario) for global water supply and demand.</p><p> Key Facts: The importance of water to agriculture Producing a person's daily food can take up to 5,000 litres of water. Food and fibre crop production uses 70% of the freshwater withdrawn from natural sources</p><p>for human use. A 1% increase in water productivity in food production makes available - in theory, </p><p>at least - an extra 24 litres of water a day per head of population. While only 20% of the world's farmland is irrigated, it produces 40% of our food supply. Over 50% of total river basin area is under agricultural cover in the major watersheds of</p><p>Europe and South Asia; over 30% of total basin area is under agricultural cover in largeparts of the United States, South America, North Africa, Southeast Asia, and Australia.</p><p>Improvements in irrigationsystems will be key to meet</p><p>the water challenge in agriculture.</p></li><li><p>II. Research and Innovation</p><p>9</p><p>Research into new products that address farmers needs while at thesame time protect essential water is underway in the private andpublic sectors. This includes new crop varieties, bred traditionally orthrough plant biotechnology, that are stress tolerant and require lesswater or that use water more efficiently. With new crop protection products, the plant science industry carries out exhaustive testingbefore a product is placed on the market to avoid negative impacts onwater quality (see case study 4). This is complemented by the development of increasingly targeted application technologies. Bothaddress the need to reduce water consumption, minimise run off andprotect ecosystem health. The following examples illustrate differentresearch and development efforts related to water matters. It alsocontains a case study provided by scientists of the University ofCape Town, South Africa.</p><p>1. Stress tolerant crops economise water consumption</p><p>Throughout the growing season, crops are exposed to many differentstresses, including: cold nights, hot midday sun, too little rain, too muchrain, early frosts, etc. The accumulated damage caused by thesestresses can reduce yields in all crops by 30-70%. Bayer CropSciencedeveloped a stress tolerant plant trait that functions as a shockabsorber and protects plants from unfavourable growth conditions,including low water levels. The technology has already helped to developcorn and oilseed rape varieties with higher vigour and tolerance to abroad range of stresses. The power of this broad stress tolerance wasdemonstrated in experiments in which oilseed rape, a crop that is verysensitive to drought, was exposed to acute periods of drought combinedwith high temperatures. Because drought and heat stress often occurtogether, tolerance to a combination of these stresses is of utmostimportance. Since this technology is interacting with pathways thatexist in all plants, it is expected that it will be applicable to the majorityof, if not all, crops.</p><p> Plant biotechnological developments related to stress tolerance anddrought resistance hold great potential for future water savingapproaches.</p><p>2. Drought resistant traits in the product pipeline</p><p>The plant biotechnology product pipeline of Monsanto covers five stages andcan take up to 13 years from discovery to final regulatory approval. One programme currently in the discovery phase is an effort to identify genes thatmight provide "drought stress tolerance." Projects within this programme thathave advanced to the first phase, include testing of specific genes for droughttolerant corn and soybeans. First results from trials in 2003 show that drought tolerance substantiallyincreased the grain yield through improved water utilisation and thus less water...</p></li></ul>