PUNJABI LANGUAGE

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PUNJABI

INTRODUCTION

Punjabi is the native language of about 130 million people, and is the 10th most spoken language in the world. Most of the people who speak this language live in the Punjab region of Pakistan and IndiaPunjabi is the religious language of the Sikhs. It is also the language of the popular Bhangra folk dance and singing.

HISTORYPunjabi is classified as a member of the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European family of languages. The word Punjabi is derived from the word Panj-b, Persian for "Five Waters", referring to the five major eastern tributaries of the Indus River. Punjabi developed from Sanskrit through Prakrit language and later ApabhraaMany Persian and Arabic words were incorporated in Punjabi.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONPunjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan and is the provincial language in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Punjabi is spoken as a native language by over 44.15% of Pakistanis. About 70.0% of the people of Pakistan speak Punjabi as either their first or second language, and for some as their third language.86% of the total population of Lahore is native Punjabi and IslamabadIn India, Punjabi is spoken as a native language by 3% of the population. This was about 33 million in 2011. It is the official language of the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana.

Census history of Punjabi speakers in Pakistan

DIALECTS The major dialects of Punjabi include Majhi, Doabi, Malwai, Powadhi, Pothohari, and Multani. Others are Shahpuri or Sargodha dialect, Dhani, Jhangochi/Changvi, Jangli/Rachnavi, Hindko, Jandali, Jafri/Khetrani, Chenavari etc. In India, Punjabi is written in Gurmukh, a standardised script. The word Gurmukhi translates into 'from the Guru's mouth'. In Pakistan, the Shahmukh script, meaning "from the King's mouth", based on the Persian abjad is used.

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EnglishGurmukhi based (India)Shahmukhi based (Pakistan)President (pardhn)(sadar-e mulmikat)Article (lkh)(mazmn)Prime Minister (pardhn matar)(wazir-e azam)

Family/ (parvr/abbar)/ (khndn/abbar)Philosophy (falsaf)(falsaf)Capital (rjdhn)/ (drul haqmat/rjghar)Viewer (darak)(nzrn)

LITERARTURE DEVELOPMENTMughal and Sikh period:-

The earliest Punjabi literature is found in the fragments of writings of the 11th Nath yogis Gorakshanath and Charpatnah. Fariduddin Ganjshakar of Pak Pattan is generally recognised as the first major poet of the Punjabi language.Bulle Shah is considered as one of the greatest Sufi poets. Punjabi Sufi poetry developed under Shah Hussain (15381599), Sultan Bahu (16281691), Shah Sharaf (16401724), Ali Haider (16901785), Saleh Muhammad Safoori (son of Hazrat Mai Safoora Qadiriyya, whom Ali Haider had given great tribute) and Bulleh Shah (16801757).

LITERARTURE DEVELOPMENTBritish Raj era and post-independence period:-The Victorian novel, Elizabethan drama, free verse and Modernism entered Punjabi literature through the introduction of British education during the Raj. Nanak Singh (18971971), Vir Singh, Ishwar Nanda, Amrita Pritam (19192005), Puran Singh (18811931), Dhani Ram Chatrik (18761957), Diwan Singh (18971944), Ustad Daman (19111984), Mohan Singh (190578) and Shareef Kunjahi are some legendary Punjabi writers of this period. After independence of Pakistan and India Najm Hossein Syed, Fakhar Zaman and Afzal Ahsan Randhawa, Shafqat Tanvir Mirza, Ahmad Salim, and Najm Hosain Syed, Munir Niazi, Pir Hadi abdul Mannan enriched Punjabi literature in Pakistan