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  • Performance Based Navigation (PBN)

    The Science and Application to High Density Terminal Arrivals William C. Johnson

    NASA Langley Research Center

    Presented at ANE2019

    March 4, 2019

  • A Fundamental Air Traffic Management Concept

    • As Demand approaches Capacity, Efficiency is negatively impacted

    • What are some of the impacts of the efficiency loss? – Passenger/cargo delays

    – Schedule conformance reduction along the flight plan

    – Increased fuel (burned and reserves)

    – Flight plan deviations

    • Increases uncertainty and limits optimization of strategic objectives

    • One example metric is:

    – Uninterrupted Flights: The percentage of flights that do not require an instruction to change the heading, speed or altitude of the aircraft

  • Efficiency (as Uninterrupted Flights) vs Demand-To-Capacity Ratio

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

    U n

    in te

    rr u

    p te

    d Fl

    ig h

    ts (

    % )

    Demand-To-Capacity Ratio

    No Tools

    No Spacing Tools

    Arrival Rate: 42383430

    Assumes Area Navigation/RNAV Optimized Profile Descents for arrival phase

    Source: Huang et. al., “System Analysis Integration and Evaluation (SAIE) NRA: Year 2 2nd Quarterly Review”, Saab Sensis Corporation (2012).

    Performance at High Ratio is particularly important for High Density Terminal Operations

  • Motivation

    • PBN is an important mitigation for the efficiency loss

    • PBN establishes better defined routes using a series of waypoints with associated speed and altitude constraints as needed

    • The routes are defined by a team of local community members that includes, at a minimum, traffic flow managers, air traffic control managers, operators, and manufacturers

    – Aircraft must be able to reliably conform to the routes so operator and manufacturer input is critical

    • Once the routes are defined, they are published and incorporated by systems integrators into ground and airborne automation systems

    • Automation systems can use the published routes to build partial or full trajectories that can be used to improve the precision and accuracy of air traffic management systems

  • Continuous Routes

    WPT8

    leg10

    WPT10

    250/10000

    WPT7

    ORIG

    DEST

    WPT1

    WPT2

    WPT3

    WPT4 WPT5 WPT6

    WPT9

    WPT11

    WPT12

    SPD12/ALT12

    250/10000

    ALT8

    RTA10

    Takeoff

    Climb

    Cruise

    Descent

    Approach

    T/C T/D

    leg1

    leg2

    leg3

    leg4

    leg5 leg6

    leg8

    leg7

    leg9

    leg11

    leg12

    leg13

    Range

    A lt it u

    d e

    Profile of a gate-to-gate trajectory

  • Brief Example of Continuous Route Implementation for Arrivals in the NAS

    • Denver International Airport – Published RNAV Standard

    Terminal Arrivals (STAR)

    – Published Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP) • IAPs connect all STARs to all RWYs in

    both North and South flow configurations

    – Enables a full trajectory to be well estimated from En-Route /Cruise all the way down to the RWY

    Diagram of all STARs and their IAP connections to RWYs at DEN

  • New Tools – An Essential Part of PBN

    • Publishing new routes and operating aircraft that can tightly conform to the published routes can provide some efficiency improvements alone but including additional tools can further improve efficiency as demand approaches capacity

    Arrival Vertical Profiles (No new tools)

    Distance to Touchdown (NM)

    Turboprops

    Jets

    Arrival Vertical Profiles (with new tools)

    Distance to Touchdown (NM)

    Turboprops

    Jets

    Source: Swenson et. al., “Design and Evaluation of the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing System,” 9th

    USA/Europe Air Traffic Management Research and Development Seminar (ATM2011), Berlin, Germany.

  • New Tools – PBN Conformance Improvement

    25 nautical miles 25 nautical miles

    PBN routes without new scheduling tools PBN routes with new scheduling tools

    Lateral Path Profiles

    Source: J. Thipphavong et al., “Evaluation of Terminal Sequencing and Spacing System for Performance-Based Navigation Arrivals,” 32nd Digital Avionics Systems Conference, Syracuse, 6-10 October 2013.

  • Efficiency (as Uninterrupted Flights) vs Demand-To-Capacity Ratio

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

    U n

    in te

    rr u

    p te

    d Fl

    ig h

    ts (

    % )

    Demand-To-Capacity Ratio

    No Tools

    No Spacing Tools

    Arrival Rate: 42383430

    Assumes Area Navigation/RNAV Optimized Profile Descents for arrival phase

    Source: Huang et. al., “System Analysis Integration and Evaluation (SAIE) NRA: Year 2 2nd Quarterly Review”, Saab Sensis Corporation (2012).

  • Efficiency (as Uninterrupted Flights) vs Demand-To-Capacity Ratio with new Tools

    Ground-based and airborne spacing tools allow more frequent use of uninterrupted RNAV OPDs for the entire arrival phase.

    Source: Huang et. al., “System Analysis Integration and Evaluation (SAIE) NRA: Year 2 2nd Quarterly Review”, Saab Sensis Corporation (2012).

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

    U n

    in te

    rr u

    p te

    d Fl

    ig h

    ts (

    % )

    Demand-To-Capacity Ratio

    No Spacing Tools

    Ground-based Spacing Tools

    Airborne Spacing Tools

    Arrival Rate: 42383430

  • Summary

    PBN including: – More efficient routes

    – Aircraft/equipment/crews that can conform to the routes

    – Automation that supports new routes with improved scheduling and spacing tools

    Improves the operational efficiency as Demand approaches Capacity which is critical to enabling system wide performance and efficiency improvements at High Density Terminals

  • Questions

    William C. Johnson NASA Langley Research Center

    William.johnson@nasa.gov

    NASA ATD-1 Project Info www.tinyurl.com/NASA-ATD1

    mailto:William.johnson@nasa.gov http://www.tinyurl.com/NASA-ATD1

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