paces domain v: enabling thinking paces is: indicators seven domains teaching & learning components
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PACES Domain V: Enabling Thinking
PACES is:Indicators Seven DomainsTeaching & Learning Components
The Seven DomainsI.Planning for Teaching and LearningII.Managing the Learning EnvironmentIII.Teacher/Learner RelationshipsIV.Enhancing and Enabling LearningV.Enabling ThinkingVI.Classroom-Based Assessment of LearningVII.Professional Responsibilities
Indicators44 Required for EvaluationTotal of 107
There is an art of reading, as well as an art of thinking, and an art of writing.Isaac DIsraeliWriter 1766-1848
V.A. Higher Order Cognitive SkillsLearners are actively engaged and/or involved in developing associations (V.A.1).Learners are actively engaged and/or involved in developing concepts (V.A.2).Learners are actively engaged and/or involved in developing principles, rules, and/or generalizations (V.A.3). continuedInvolvement in the development of thinking skills suggests more in depth cognitive activity than being at task.
V.A. Higher Order Cognitive Skills continuedLearners are actively engaged and/or involved and encouraged to generate and think about examples from their own experiences (V.A.4).Learners are actively engaged and/or involved in and encouraged to use mental imagery (V.A.5).Involvement in the development of thinking skills suggests more in depth cognitive activity than being at task.
V.A. 1Developing Associations
An association is a connection between ideas, sensations, memories and so on.An association is a fundamental building block for learningAssociations form networks, patterns, and arrangements of knowledge that can be used for future learning.BCA
IMAGINE!We process the world by comparing whatever we perceive to our previous experience. What would life be like without our ability to make these associations?
Keys to Meaningful Association FormingLink new associations to prior learning experiences.
Actively involve learners.
Concepts are general ideas or understandings derived from specific instances or classes of objects.
PlantFlowerRoseThe development of concepts involves linking items to categories, concept classes, by using attributes of members in the concept class.
V.A.3Developing Principles, Rules, and/or Generalizations
Principles, Rules, and Generalizations state relationships between two or more concepts.LawsFundamental truthsEssential elements in a processMethods of operationFunctional relationshipsE=MC2
V.A.4Generating and Thinking About Examples from Learner Experience
The teacher uses methods that actively engage and/or involve learners in ample opportunities to:KnowledgeGenerateStructureTransferTransformRestructure
Thinking skills are developed and learning is enhanced when the learner: provides examples from personal experience. generates new examples. attends to others personal examples.
V.A.5Using Mental Imagery
Imagination can:Generate and transform knowledge.But only if you ask the right questions.
Imagination, which, in truth, Is but another name for absolute powerAnd clearest insight, amplitude of mind,And reason in her most exalted mood.William WordsworthPoet 1770-1850
PACES Domain V:Enabling ThinkingV. B. Questioning Strategies
What is the answer? In that case, what is the question?Gertrude SteinWriter 1874-1946Last words.
Questioning StrategiesIndicatorsA variety of questions that enable thinking are asked and/or solicited (V.B.1)
Wait time is used as appropriate to enhance the development of thinking skills (V.B.2)
V.B.1A variety of questions that enable thinking are asked and/or solicited.
Keys to Enabling Thinking Through Variety of Questions Questions may be asked by the teacher or by learners. Questioning occurs throughout a lesson. Question are asked for a variety of purposes.
Compare Contrast Justify Speculate Predict Synthesize and...When learners are asked to:Stimulate higher order thinking skills Generated Structured Restructured Transferred Transformed and...Knowledge is:Variety of Purpose
V.B.2Wait time is used as appropriate to enhance the development of thinking skills.?
Wait time is the duration of the pause separating speakers.1Teacher - Learner2Learner - Teacher3Learner - Learner4Teacher - Teacher
Preferable Wait Time Format1.Pose a question to the group.2.Allow learners 3 to 5 seconds to ponder answers to the question.3.Ask individual learners to then respond.
PACES Domain V:Enabling ThinkingV.C. Problem Solving and Creative Thinking
I must Create a System, or be enslavd by another MansWilliam Blake Writer & Artist 1757-1827
Indicators - Learners are Actively Engaged and/or Involved in:Critical analysis and/or problem solving (V.C.1)
Elaborating, extending, or discussing their own or other learner responses (V.C.2)
Creative thinking (V.C. 3) continued
Indicators - Learners are Actively Engaged and/or Involved in:Extending learning to different contexts (V.C.4)
Thinking about their roles and responsibilities as thinkers and learners. (V.C.5)
V.C.1: Critical Analysis and/or Problem Solving
Strategies that encourage critical analysis and/or problem solving include:Making predictionsLinking cause & effectDiscussing means & ends relationshipsConsensus buildingIdentifying pros & cons
More Strategies:Listing strengths & weaknessesDistinguishing facts from opinions and relevant from irrelevant informationDetermining credibility of sourcesIdentifying assumptions & limitationsIdentifying logical fallacies & ambiguities
V.C.2Elaborating and Extending Responses
Learners may elaborate upon and extend other learner knowledge, the teachers or their own by:TransferringMatchingRestructuring
V.C.3: Creative Thinking
Creative Thinking Involves:FluencyFlexibilityOriginalityElaboration
V.C.4: Extending Learning to Different Contexts
Past experiencesNew learning opportunitiesOther topicsImaginary settings&Personal reflectionAre all contexts to which new learning may be applied.
V.C.5: Learners Are Encouraged to Think About Their Roles and Responsibilities as Thinkers and LearnersLearners understand: they are co-participants in the learning environmenttheir past experiences help construct new insights and knowledge membership in a learning community is important in developing thinking skills
This is new to PACES; TADS had no such requirements.There is presently concern in our field that because of the emphasis placed on testing, students in our schools have been learning at low cognitive levels that require recall rather than actual thought. Developing HOCS is not the task of an independent Study Skills class; enhancing learners abilities to use HOCS is the responsibility of teachers in all subject areas. This is particularly true since thought processes vary according to subject area. We dont use the same cognitive strategies to solve an algebraic word problem as we do to examine the motives or influences of a historical figure.
Domain V is just one of the seven Domains.Each Domain is divided into Teaching and Learning ComponentsPerformance in each of these Teaching and Learning Components determined through required and suggested Assessment Indicators. The Assessment Indicators required for evaluation are set off in bold print in the PACES Manual.The 44 required indicators are used by the school principal for the purpose of evaluation, prescription, and hiring decisions. According to research, only .5% of teachers are found deficient.The 63 suggested Assessment Indicators are used by the rest of us in order to further our professional development. This is one of the innovations in PACES. The emphasis is on involving all of us in the assessment process and the improvement of teaching.Indicators 2 and 4 are required and used for evaluation.Indicators 1, 3, and 5 are for assessment purposes only.The emphasis in all of these indicators is to encourage learners to actively demonstrate these skills and to provide ample opportunity for them to do so. This requires planning. So, as we go through this Teaching and Learning Component, think back to Domain I.State that this is the first assessment indicator and go on.What if whatever we beheld had no point of reference in our experience?The power of associations lies in their personal connections.Indicator 2 is required for evaluation.We base our concepts on attributes of the items that fit that concept. For example, define the concept dog.If you were to see a rose, you would recognize it as such because its attributes ( thorns, shape, petals, colors, fragrance, etc.) fit your concept of a rose. Many of those attributes in turn fit within the concepts flowers and plants respectively.Assessment Indicator 3 is not required for evaluation.Again, remember that the emphasis should be placed on encouraging the learners to develop principles, rules, and generalizations.Indicator 4 is required for evaluation.Based on what we have been discussing so far, what are you helping learners do, when you encourage them to do this?
Answer:develop associations, concepts, principles, etc.Assessment Indicator 5 is for assessment purposes; it is not used for evaluation.Remember that this is the students are using mental imagery not the teacher.Saying, Lets pretend, is not enough; this must be followed with questions that encourage the students to actively participate.Gertrud