oscar de priest & marcus garvey african american political voices of the 1920s 1

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  • Slide 1
  • OSCAR DE PRIEST & MARCUS GARVEY AFRICAN AMERICAN POLITICAL VOICES OF THE 1920S 1
  • Slide 2
  • CONGRESSMAN OSCAR DE PRIEST 1929-1935 Representative of Illinois Republican from city of Chicago 1 st African American Congressman of the 20 th Century Groundbreaker, Lawmaker, Civil Rights Advocate 2
  • Slide 3
  • TRUE RAGS TO RICHES STORY Born in Florence, Alabama To former slaves Father rescued a Lynching victim Another victim killed on their doorstep Family joined the Exodusters and moved to Kansas, 1878 Studied Business & Bookkeeping Worked as a Painter & Decorator 3
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  • MOVED TO CHICAGO IN 1889 4
  • Slide 5
  • A SUCCESSFUL BUSINESSMAN A Building Contractor Real Estate Broker Built a Fortune in Stock Market Helped Black families move into All-white neighborhoods & apartments Received Death Threats Oscar De Priest House Apartment Building 5
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  • PATH TO WASHINGTON County Commissioner Chicago City Council member from his neighborhood 2 nd Ward Alderman Campaign Button 6
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  • A LITTLE TROUBLE WITH THE LAW! Stepped down as Alderman Accused of involvement with Chicagos Black Mob Found Not Guilty! NO WONDER! Guess who his lawyer was? 7
  • Slide 8
  • RETURNED TO POLITICS Top Black Politician of Chicago Under Mayor Big Bill Thompson 8
  • Slide 9
  • LARGE AFRICAN AMERICAN NEIGHBORHOODS = LARGE VOTING BLOCK 1920s, African Americans voted Republican The Party of Lincoln Democrats = Party of the South & Segregation 1920 - Chicagos African Americans Elected Oscar De Priest as their Rep. to the House of Representatives 1920s President Hoover 9
  • Slide 10
  • 1 ST AFRICAN AMERICAN REPRESENTATIVE SINCE DAYS OF RECONSTRUCTION How were African Americans able to go to Congress from southern States during Reconstruction? Why were there no more after Reconstruction until De Priest? 10
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  • REPRESENTED CHICAGOS SOUTHSIDE So, how was De Priest elected from Chicagos South Side? 11
  • Slide 12
  • CONGRESSIONAL ACHIEVEMENTS Introduced several Anti- Discrimination Bill s failed! Introduced an Anti-Lynching Bill would fine and imprison officials who allowed lynchings of prisoners failed! Amendment barring in the CCC Passed & Signed by Pres. Roosevelt! Bill to transfer trials to different area when could not get a fair trial Passed! Lincolns Birthday declared a holiday Passed! Pensions to elderly former slaves Passed! 12
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  • DEFENDED HIS RIGHT TO EAT IN THE HOUSE DINING ROOM RATHER THAN BEHIND KITCHEN! Told an Alabama Senator he wasnt big enough to prevent him from dining in the Senate Restaurant! 13
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  • APPOINTED BLACK CADET TO MILITARY ACADEMY Benjamin O. Davis Jr. His father was the only black officer in the entire army Received the silent treatment through WestPoint Became a Tuskegee Airman Became a General 14
  • Slide 15
  • HIS WIFE MADE NATIONAL NEWS Tempest in a Teapot Jessie De Priest 15
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  • INVITED TO WHITE HOUSE BY ACTIVIST FIRST LADY LOU HENRY HOOVER Determined to find a way to break color barrier at White House Invited Congressman De Priests beautiful wife Jessie to a Congressmens Wives Tea News Articles all over the nation Hundreds of letters to the White House 16
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  • A TRUE REPUBLICAN He opposed Federal Aid to the Needy Opposed taxes on the rich. (Why?) Fought Depression Era Relief programs Lost his seat in 1934 to Black Democratic opponent Rep. Arthur W. Mitchell 17
  • Slide 18
  • RETURNED TO SERVE CHICAGO Served on City Council until 1947 Died at the age of 80 Had two sons http://www.whitehousehistory.org/whh a_shows/depriest-tea-incident/african- american-congress.html De Priest Home in Washington D.C. 18
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  • ANOTHER AFRICAN AMERICAN SENATOR FROM CHICAGO'S SOUTH SIDE 19
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  • MARCUS GARVEY & BLACK NATIONALISM A DIFFERENT KIND OF VOICE 20
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  • CALLED FOR VOLUNTARY SEPARATION From Jamaica Message of Negro Nationalism Back to Africa Movement Founded the UNIA Universal Negro Improvement Association Based in Harlem 21
  • Slide 22
  • UNIA MESSAGE GET EDUCATED! Encouraged Black Pride & Unity Be Proud to be Black Separate from White Society Will never find justice in America! He would lead them back to Africa. 22
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  • APPEALED TO WORKING CLASS AFRICAN AMERICANS Held Convention of 50,000 Wore Uniforms Marched in Harlem Create new Settlement in Liberia, Africa New Settlement concerned Britain & Africa Members felt a part of something important 23
  • Slide 24
  • MOVEMENT LOST STRENGTH Middle Class African Americans & Intellectuals opposed him FBI thought him dangerous, watched him Convicted him of Mail Fraud Sent to prison His popularity led Pres. Coolidge to free him On the condition he return to Jamaica 24 W.E.B. DuBois appealed to Middle Class African Americans & Professionals
  • Slide 25
  • ACCOMPLISHMENT - INSPIRED MILLIONS OF AFRICAN AMERICANS TO HAVE PRIDE IN THEIR HERITAGE A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots. A reading man and woman is a ready man and woman, but a writing man and woman is exact. God and Nature first made us what we are, and then out of our own created genius we make ourselves what we want to be. Follow always that great law. Let the sky and God be our limit and Eternity our measurement. If you have no confidence in self, you are twice defeated in the race of life. Glorified Black Culture & Traditions of the African Past 25