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- 1. Meninges & The Spinal Cord Chapter 9: Nervous System Unit 3: Integration and Coordination
- 2. Meninges
- Bones, membranes, and fluid surround the organs of the CNS.
- Layered membranes called Meninges lie between these bony coverings and the soft tissues of the CNS.
- The meninges serve as protection for the brain and the spinal cord
- 3. Layers of the Meninges
- Meninges have three layers:
- Dura Mater
- The outermost layer of the meninges
- Arachnoid Mater
- The middle layer of the meninges
- Pia Mater
- The innermost layer of the meninges
- 5. Dura Mater
- Dura mater is composed primarily of tough, white, fibrous connective tissue.
- Contains many blood vessels and nerves.
- Attached to the interior portion of the skull and serves as the periosteum for the inside of the cranium.
- Also extends inward between the lobes of the brain (partitions and protection)
- 6. More on Dura Mater
- Dura mater extends from the cranium into the vertebral canal.
- It is a strong tubular sheath that surrounds the spinal cord.
- It is not attached to the vertebrae spinal cord, but is separated by a space called the Epidural Space
- 9. Arachnoid Mater
- The Arachnoid Mater is a thin, web-like membrane without blood vessels
- Lies between the dura mater and the pia mater
- It spreads over the brain and the spinal cord
- 11. Pia Mater
- The Pia Mater is very thin and delicate.
- Contains many blood vessels that nourish the cells of the brain and the spinal cord.
- This layer is connected to the surfaces of both the brain and the spinal cord.
- Separating the pia mater from the arachnoid mater is the Subarachnoid Space .
- This space contains the clear, watering Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
- 13. The Spinal Cord
- The Spinal Cord is a slender nerve column that passes downward from the brain into the vertebral canal.
- This structure is continuous with the brain, but officially begins where nervous tissue leaves the cranial cavity (foramen magnum).
- 15. Structure of the Spinal Cord
- The spinal cord consists of 31 segments that each give rise to a pair of spinal nerves.
- Spinal nerves branch to different parts to connect the CNS to the PNS.
- There are two spinal nerves that arise between every vertebraeone to each side of the body
- Various parts of the spinal cord supply nerves to specific parts of the PNS.
- 17. Spinal Cord Enlargements
- The Cervical Enlargement is found in the neck region of the spinal cord.
- Supplies nerves to the upper limbs
- The Lumbar Enlargement is found in the lower back region of the spinal cord.
- Supplies nerves to the lower limbs
- 19. Spinal Cord Anatomy
- The human spinal cord has a very distinct appearance when viewed in cross section
- The spinal cord is segmented
- One segment per vertebra
- Each segment is nearly identical to all other segments
- 20. Spinal Cord Anatomy
- 21. Spinal Cord Anatomy
- The spinal cord has both grey matter & white matter
- White matter is composed of myelinated neuronal axons
- Grey matter is unmyelinated
- Made mostly of neuron cell bodies
- Makes up the central region of the spinal cord
- Looks somewhat like a butterfly
- 22. Spinal Cord Anatomy
- The Grey Matter Butterfly
- The top of the butterfly is toward the posterior
- The bottom of the butterfly toward anterior
- The wings are called horns
- posterior horn
- anterior horn
- 23. Spinal Cord Anatomy
- 24. Spinal Cord Anatomy
- The anterior horns give rise to anterior roots
- The anterior roots are composed of the axons of motor neurons
- The axons of the anterior horn/root join up with the axons of the posterior root to form a spinal nerve
- 25. Spinal Cord Anatomy
- The posterior horn gives rise to posterior roots
- These roots are made of the axons of sensory neurons
- Usually, there are ganglia associated with the posterior roots
- Ganglia (singular: ganglion ) are clumps of nerve cell bodies that allow neurons to communicate
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