Managing your Library and its Quality || Quality management system

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<ul><li><p>71</p><p>9</p><p>Quality management system</p><p>Abstract: In this chapter the general requirements of building ISO 9001 based quality management systems are explained. In this the emphasis is on the process approach, as well as in the documentation and management of the documents, including archiving them. Also, the building of the quality manual is explained.</p><p>Key words: quality management systems, requirements, documentation, quality manual, processes, archiving, ISO 9001</p><p>Quality management system [4]</p><p>General requirements [4.1]</p><p>What is this requirement and what happens if one does not meet this requirement?</p><p>The organisation has to establish, document, implement and maintain a quality management system and continually improve its effectiveness in accordance with the requirements of ISO 9001. According to the standard (ISO 9001), the organisation needs to:</p><p>a) Determine the processes needed for the quality man-agement system and their application throughout the organisation.</p></li><li><p>72</p><p>Managing Your Library and its Quality</p><p>b) Determine the sequence and interaction of these processes.</p><p>c) Determine the criteria and methods needed to ensure that both the operation and control of these processes are effective.</p><p>d) Ensure the availability of resources and information necessary to support the operation and monitoring of these processes.</p><p>e) Monitor, measure (where applicable) and analyse these processes.</p><p>f) Implement actions which are necessary to achieve the planned results and continual improvement of these processes.</p><p>Clause 4.1, based on the system approach principle, estab-lishes the general features of any quality management system and lists six specifi c requirements that summarise the standard. </p><p>The library activities can be seen as a chain of processes that crosses the librarys functional sections. Each of them produces results of added value that help the library to attain its objectives.</p><p>All libraries have some kind of management system, more or less formalised, but clause 4.1 requires that there should be effective formalisation of the quality management system. Thus, when the quality management system is being designed, the library does not start from zero and, fortunately, many processes may already exist and may well be adequately defi ned. However, while one is setting up the librarys quality management system in accordance with the requirements of the standard, one probably will be surprised by the absence of some written procedures in the current library management system.</p><p>The creation of a quality system requires, fi rst of all, that one must design a system having the librarys mission and </p></li><li><p>73</p><p>Quality management system</p><p>users in mind, as well as establishing and defi ning all of the interconnected processes involved (see Figure 9.1). The processes are not independent and it is necessary to refl ect on the relationships and connections between all the processes and furthermore to ensure that all the linkages are properly working and interacting so that the outputs from a process feed and support the other processes (see Table 9.1). This should also be the case when one outsources some of the organisations processes, e.g. e-journals in academic libraries.</p><p>The library staff need resources and information documentation and communication in order to correctly perform their tasks and to ensure that there is effective control of the processes. It is not enough merely to document what the library is already doing. When a system is established, it has to be operated consistently and, to ensure effective operation, it is necessary to set success criteria </p><p>The chain of a librarys core processes (published by kind permission of Arja Juntunen)Figure 9.1</p><p>Librarys core processesStrategic aimsMeasurement and evaluationSupport and management</p><p>Docu-mentedinfor-</p><p>mation</p><p>Personnel resourcesLibrary premises and equipmentComputers and networksWork places and equipmentKnowledge management</p><p>Continuous development</p><p>Informationretrieval and</p><p>tutoringAccess</p><p>anddatabases</p><p>Collections:-printed-digital</p><p>LendingCopying,printing,usage</p><p>User gets theinformationneeded and</p><p>learns to searchinformationILL</p></li><li><p>74</p><p>Managing Your Library and its Quality</p><p>which need to be met by a process in order to fulfi l its objectives and there have to be methods that will ensure effective operation. </p><p>All the parts of the system are important; to utilise effectively the system being created, it has to be in accordance with all of the items referred to in this clause.</p><p>How to implement it</p><p>When you start to make a QMS:</p><p> Acquire fl owchart software it helps in creating process charts and managing the totality.</p><p> If you are not able to purchase software, use cheap traditional techniques: Post-Its on the wall, blackboard, etc.</p><p> Benchmark other libraries process charts and maps.</p><p> Involve staff and users in this process.</p><p>Clause 4.1 lists six specifi c requirements that need to be fulfi lled.</p><p>Examples of library processesTable 9.1</p><p>Management processes</p><p>Operational processes Supporting processes</p><p>Strategic planningQuality systemHuman resources</p><p>AcquisitionsCirculationInter-library loansKnowledge organisation process (cataloguing, indexing)Information diffusion (web)Information literacy tuitionReference</p><p>ComputingMaintenanceCleaningPhotocopying, scanning and printingAccounting</p></li><li><p>75</p><p>Quality management system</p><p>A) Determine the processes</p><p> Take a look to the comments in clause 0.2 Process approach (on page 52).</p><p> As a starting point, it can help to determine the mission statement of the library (a topdown approach). Then list the capabilities needed to accomplish this mission and thus the core processes required to deliver these capabilities will be identifi ed. If the library does not yet have a mission statement, this is the time to prepare it.</p><p> Prepare an initial list of the librarys processes. A typical list could include: acquisitions, cataloguing, circulation, etc. Do not forget to list the outsourced processes.</p><p> Each set of activities is not necessarily a process. If the result adds no value, continue the sequence until added value is found and this fi nally completes a process.</p><p>B) Determine the sequence and interaction</p><p> Think of the library system as a set of interconnected pro-cesses rather than as a series of interconnected functions.</p><p> Each process delivers an output that serves as an input to the other processes. The factor order alters the output, so be careful when defi ning the sequence.</p><p> Prepare a chart with the interconnected main processes. However, it is also important to defi ne the sub-processes, as it will be necessary to document all of them (see clause 4.2).</p><p> In this chart level avoid including sub-processes in order to avoid unnecessary complexity.</p><p>C) Determine criteria and methods for effective operation and control</p><p> Identify the factors that affect the success of the per-formance (for example, deadlines, costs).</p></li><li><p>76</p><p>Managing Your Library and its Quality</p><p> Determine the way in which the process is carried out to deliver the desired results.</p><p> Prepare the procedures, with a description of the process.</p><p>D) Ensure the availability of resources and information </p><p> Determine the resources and information required to perform each library activity.</p><p> Determine the resource allocation procedures.</p><p>E) Monitor, measure and analyse processes</p><p> Decide the data needed in order to provide indicators that will help to control the processes.</p><p>F) Implement actions necessary to achieve planned results and continual improvement</p><p>The library has to improve the effectiveness of the quality management system continually and there are several ways to achieve this goal. Some examples include:</p><p> general improvement derived from the implementation of the quality system that helps to reformulate the current management system;</p><p> effi ciency improvement resulting from the enhancement of library operations (e.g., less complexity, faster routines, more effective use of the resources);</p><p> effectiveness improvement as a result of identifying better policies and objectives (e.g., new targets, new user requirements).</p></li><li><p>77</p><p>Quality management system</p><p>Documentation requirements [4.2]</p><p>General [4.2.1]What is this requirement and what happens if one does not meet this requirement?</p><p>The organisation has to document the quality management system in accordance with the requirements of the standard. According to the standard (ISO 9001), the management system documentation needs to include:</p><p>a) documented statements of a quality policy and quality objectives;</p><p>b) a quality manual;</p><p>c) documented procedures and records required by this international standard;</p><p>d) documents, including records, deemed by the organisation to be necessary to ensure the effective planning, operation and control of its processes.</p><p>It is necessary to document all the sets of interrelated processes that form the quality management system. Since the documentation can be kept in any form or type of medium and, in addition, a single document may include the requirements for one or more procedures, one does not need to panic about being drowned in a tsunami of bureaucracy.</p><p>The extent of the quality management system documen-tation will differ from one library to another due to the size, type and complexity of the library. The library is left to decide about the documentation necessary for the effective operation and control of its processes. There are many reasons to document library activities. The most important is to communicate information on the requirements, instruc-tions, methods and results effectively. One cannot document </p></li><li><p>78</p><p>Managing Your Library and its Quality</p><p>exhaustively everything that happens inside a library but, on the other hand, one has to bear in mind that verbal information is not a document, and often some activities developed by the library are based only on an oral tradition. Thus, it is important to be able to fi nd the perfect equilibrium on the depth and breadth of the documentation.</p><p>A procedure is a specifi ed way to carry out an activity or a process. It is clear that procedures are useful in order to ensure that tasks are tackled with consistency, economy, repeatability and uniformity. Sometimes it has been said that documenting procedures is counterproductive for creativity and initiative. This need not be true if library procedures refl ect up-to-date practices and there is a mechanism to enhance and upgrade the documentation, as the standard states.</p><p>How to implement it</p><p> Decide on the best method of transmitting the information. Most of the documentation can be kept on the library intranet.</p><p> Prepare the documentation in the form or type of medium you consider most suitable. Some libraries use commercial software, but this is not essential.</p><p>Clause 4.2 specifi es four requirements for documentation.</p><p>A) Statements of quality policy and quality objectives</p><p> Establish the quality policy of the library. Choose clear and short sentences to communicate the quality commit-ment of the library.</p><p> Include the quality statement in the quality manual.</p></li><li><p>79</p><p>Quality management system</p><p> Establish the quality objectives of the library. Choose clear and short sentences and try to defi ne indicators for each one.</p><p> Include the quality objectives in the quality manual, or use suitable documents exclusively for these materials.</p><p>B) Quality manual</p><p> See comments on clause 4.2.2 Quality manual.</p><p>C) Procedures and records required by ISO 9001</p><p>Procedures are not required for each clause of the standard. There are only six procedures actually required by the standard. However, this does not imply that one does not need to prepare any other procedures. The six are:</p><p> Procedure for document control.</p><p> Procedure for the control of records.</p><p> Procedure for auditing.</p><p> Procedure for nonconformity control.</p><p> Procedure for preventive actions.</p><p> Procedure for corrective actions.</p><p>One possibility is to prepare the above-mentioned six procedures as separate fi les, but it may be possible to join some of them together: for example, one procedure may suffi ce for both corrective and preventive actions.</p><p>D) Documents and records determined by the organisation</p><p> Compile the already existing documentation on library activities.</p></li><li><p>80</p><p>Managing Your Library and its Quality</p><p> Most of the library processes can probably be broken down and categorised into several sub-processes. This is also the time to refl ect more deeply on each process. </p><p> Chart the processes and identify where documents are needed to explain tasks and activities.</p><p> Some basic questions can help to identify the essential documents to be prepared: What has to be done? Identify the process. How will it be done? Identify the tasks and competencies related to each process, determine and defi ne methods and procedures, and determine the resources needed: people, equipment and information. Records must also register the results. Thus sometimes one needs to answer questions such as: What was done? And one must be able to verify the achievement of objectives.</p><p> The form is not exactly defi ned in the content of the proce-dures, but a typical procedure could include information on the purpose, objectives, fl ow of activities, relations with other processes, competencies and resources required; performance measures; list of supporting information; and a list of records indicating activities performed and the results of the measurements conducted.</p><p> Start by listing all the documents that should conform to the requirements of the quality system that are already in existence or need to be prepared, such as: quality policy and quality objectives; quality manual (see comments on clause 4.2.2 Quality </p><p>Manual); procedures of all identifi ed processes (including out-</p><p>sourced processes); other documents necessary for effective planning, </p><p>operation and control, such as: laws related to library activities; library standards, e.g. cataloguing rules; regulations from the parent organisation of the library; </p></li><li><p>81</p><p>Quality management system</p><p>regulations from library consortia; agreements and contracts.</p><p> Plan the writing process of the missing documents and decide who is going to be responsible for doing this task.</p><p>Quality manual [4.2.2]What is this requirement and what happens if one does not meet this requirement?</p><p>The organisation has to prepare and maintain a quality manual that includes the scope of the quality management system, the documented procedures and the interaction between the processes. The quality manual can also be viewed as a kind of business card for ones quality system and it is important to be able to include all the general and important information in the manual. In other words, the manual must also be seen as a way of marketing the library.</p><p>The manuals content is not defi ned exactly, but a typical quality manual would include an introduction with infor-mation on the purpose, scope, applicability and defi nitions of terms used in the manual, a business overview with general information about the library, its mission, vision and values, the services offered and th...</p></li></ul>