lessons learned from past notable disasters india part 1: floods (note: floods also trigger...

Download LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS INDIA PART 1: FLOODS (NOTE: FLOODS ALSO TRIGGER LANDSLIDES) Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction,

Post on 23-Dec-2015

213 views

Category:

Documents

1 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Slide 1
  • LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS INDIA PART 1: FLOODS (NOTE: FLOODS ALSO TRIGGER LANDSLIDES) Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
  • Slide 2
  • INDIA
  • Slide 3
  • NATURAL AND TECH. HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN INDIA FLOODS (LANDSLIDES) SEVERE WINDSTORMS EARTHQUAKES POWER BLACKOUTS ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE HIGH BENEFIT/COST FROM BECOMING DISASTER RESILIENT GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES
  • Slide 4
  • Natural Phenomena that Cause Disasters Planet Earths atmospheric- hydrospheric- lithospheric interactions create situ- ations favorable for FLOODS
  • Slide 5
  • CAUSES OF NOTABLE FLOODS IN INDIA: THE ANNUAL MONSOON RAINS
  • Slide 6
  • A HIMALAYAN TSUNAMII HIMALAYAN REGION OF NORTHEST INDIA (Floods also trigger landslides) June 24JULY ??, 2013
  • Slide 7
  • Triggered by unusually heavy monsoon rains that dont usually arrive this early in the mountainous state of Uttarakhand, which borders Nepal and China, the floods and landslides swept away buildings, roads and vehicles.
  • Slide 8
  • HIGH POTENTIAL LOSS EXPOSURES IN A FLOOD Entire villages: People, property, infra- structure, business enterprise, government centers, crops, wildlife, and natural resources.
  • Slide 9
  • Kedarnath, the home of a deeply revered Hindu temple visited by many pilgrims every year, experienced the maximum devastation.
  • Slide 10
  • KEDARNATH (Note: Temple in Foreground) KEDARNATH (Note: Temple in foreground)
  • Slide 11
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • RISHIKESH: HINDU STATUE
  • Slide 16
  • PARTS OF NEW DEHLI ALSO FLOODED
  • Slide 17
  • IMPACTS At least 1,000 feared dead 70,000 evacuated More than 50,000 people cut off by the waters
  • Slide 18
  • DEVASTATING FLOODS IN ASSAM STATE AND IN NORTHEST INDIA (Floods also trigger landslides) June 28JULY 15, 2012
  • Slide 19
  • Slide 20
  • The Brahmaputra River overflowed during monsoon rains, flooding more than 2,000 villages and destroying homes in the northeast of the country
  • Slide 21
  • FLOOD: ASSAM STATE; JUNE 28, 2012
  • Slide 22
  • WILD BUFFALO GOING TO HIGHER GROUND; JUNE 28
  • Slide 23
  • STRANDED IN NAELENI VILLAGE: JUNE 28
  • Slide 24
  • STRANDED
  • Slide 25
  • SOME OF THE 500,000 EVACUEES: JUNE 29
  • Slide 26
  • ELDERLY AND YOUNG EVACUEES: JUNE 29
  • Slide 27
  • HOMELESS BULUT VILLAGE FAMILY: JUNE 30
  • Slide 28
  • PUMPING DRINKING WATER: BULUT VILLAGE; JUNE 30
  • Slide 29
  • 2012: RECORD BREAKING IMPACTS Ninety-five dead Over 2 million homeless. Half a million evacuees are living in relief camps with disease prone conditions Damaging landslides hindered relief operations
  • Slide 30
  • NEEDED: FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • Slide 31
  • INDIASCOMMUNITIESINDIASCOMMUNITIES DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS FLOOD HAZARDS PEOPLE & BLDGS. VULNERABILITY LOCATION FLOOD RISK RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK GOAL: FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE PREPAREDNESS PROTECTION EARLY WARNING EMERGENCY RESPONSE RECOVERY and RECONSTRUCTION POLICY OPTIONS
  • Slide 32
  • A FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT HELPS GUIDE POLICY ADOPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION FOR FLOOD DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • Slide 33
  • DAMAGE FROM INUNDATION A FLOOD RISK ASSESSMENT INTEGRATES PHYSICAL EFFECTS AND SOCIETAL IMPACTS TO DETERMINE RISK EROSION, SCOUR, AND LANDSLIDES LOSS OF FUNCTION ECONOMIC LOSS RISKRISK
  • Slide 34
  • LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN FLOODS INUNDATION INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STRUCTURE & CONTENTS: DAMAGE FROM WATER WATER BORNE DISEASES (HEALTH PROBLEMS) EROSION AND MUDFLOWS CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER CAUSES OF RISK DISASTER LABORATORIES
  • Slide 35
  • FLOOD DISASTER RISKS LOSS OF FUNCTION OF BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE, RELEASE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, DAMAGE TO CONTENTS, TRANSPORTATION OF DEBRIS, AUTOS, AND HOUSES, ENVIRONMENTAL DEAD ZONES, AND WATER BORNE DISEASES
  • Slide 36
  • A RISK ASSESSMENT A risk assessment involves the probabilistic integration of: The hazard (e.g., floods) and their potential disaster agents (inundation, erosion, etc) that are directly related to the location of the community and what happens in the regional water cycle.
  • Slide 37
  • RISK ASSESSMENT (Continued) The location of each element of the exposure in relation to the physical demands of the hazard (i.e., inundation, etc.)
  • Slide 38
  • RISK ASSESSMENT (Continued) The exposure (e.g., people, and elements of the communitys built environment), represents the potential loss when the natural hazard occurs.
  • Slide 39
  • RISK ASSESSMENT (Continued) The vulnerability (or fragility) of each element comprising the exposure when subjected to the potential disaster agents.
  • Slide 40
  • UNDERSTANDING VULNERABILITY: THE ULTIMATE DRIVER OF RISK
  • Slide 41
  • Vulnerability: The Driver of Risk FLOOD HAZARDS EVENT VULNERABILITY PEOPLE STRUCTURES PROPERTY ENVIRONMENT INFRASTRUCTURE EXPOSURE EXPECTED LOSS
  • Slide 42
  • An elements vulnerability (fragility) is the result of a communitys actions or of natures actions that change some part of the regional water cycle (e.g., precipitation, storage, runoff, transpiration, evaporation).
  • Slide 43
  • WHAT INCREASES VULNERABILITY MANKINDS ACTIONS AND NATURE ITSELF CAN CHANGE THE VULNERABILITY OF ELEMENTS AT RISK TO A FLOOD, A PART OF THE REGIONAL WATER CYCLE
  • Slide 44
  • MANKINDS CONTRIBUTION An elements vulnerability (fragility) is the result of flaws that enter during the planning, location, siting, design, and construction of a communitys buildings and infrastructure.
  • Slide 45
  • MANKINDS ACTIONS THAT CHANGE SOME PART OF THE WATER CYCLE Urban development or industrial development in areas that were formerly wetlands. Locating buildings and infrastructure in a river floodplain.
  • Slide 46
  • MANKINDS ACTIONS THAT CHANGE SOME PART OF THE WATER CYCLE Actions that increase or decrease river gradients (deforestation, dams, etc). Actions that change the runoff rate or pattern (e.g., the citys concrete footprint )
  • Slide 47
  • NATURES ACTIONS THAT CHANGE THE WATER CYCLE A flash flood. Ice jams/ice dams on the river Rapid melt of snow and ice Extreme or prolonged precipitation caused by stalled low-pressure weather systems.
  • Slide 48
  • REQUIRED INFORMATION FOR A COMPREHENSIVE VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT
  • Slide 49
  • REQUIRED INFORMATION Physical characteristics of the regional water cycle and drainage system. Physical characteristics of each river system, its tributaries, and its floodplains.
  • Slide 50
  • REQUIRED INFORMATION Physical characteristics of catchment basins, reservoirs, and wetlands in the region. Physical characteristics of dikes, levees, and dams controlling water discharge and flooding potential in the region.
  • Slide 51
  • REQUIRED INFORMATION The hazardous materials and other elements located in the floodplain.
  • Slide 52
  • LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN FLOODS INUNDATION INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS DAMAGE FROM WATER WATER BORNE DISEASES (HEALTH PROBLEMS) EROSION AND MUDFLOWS CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER CAUSES OF DISASTER CASE HISTORIES
  • Slide 53
  • A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community to respond without external help when three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., floods, earthquakes,) intersect at a point in space and time.
  • Slide 54
  • Disasters are caused by s ingle- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.
  • Slide 55
  • THE REASONS ARE... When it does happen, the functions of the communitys buildings and infrastructure can be LOST for long periods.
  • Slide 56
  • THE REASONS ARE... The community is UN- PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence high-probability of adverse consequences event.
  • Slide 57
  • THE REASONS ARE... The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for early threat identification and coordinated local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.
  • Slide 58
  • THE REASO

Recommended

View more >