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  • Slide 1
  • LESSONS LEARNED FROM PAST NOTABLE DISASTERS. THE PHILIPPINES. PART 2: TYPHOONS, FLOODS, AND LANDSLIDES Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, Vienna, Virginia, USA
  • Slide 2
  • NATURAL HAZARDS THAT PLACE THE PHILIPPINES COMMUNITIES AT RISK EARTHQUAKES TYPHOONS FLOODS LANDSLIDES VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE ENACT AND IMPLEMENT POLICIES HAVING HIGH BENEFIT/COST FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE GOAL: DISASTER RESILIENCE
  • Slide 3
  • THE PHILIPPINES
  • Slide 4
  • TYPHOONS THE PHILIPPINES IS AT RISK EVERY YEAR FROM TROPICAL STORMS AND TYPHOONS FORMING IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN, ESPECIALLY IF THEY CAUSE DEVASTATING FLOODING AND LANDSLIDES AFTER LANDFALL
  • Slide 5
  • THE PHILPPINES COMMUNITIES COMMUNITIES DATA BASES AND INFORMATION HAZARDS: GROUND SHAKING GROUND FAILURE SURFACE FAULTING TECTONIC DEFORMATION TSUNAMI RUN UP AFTERSHOCKS TYPHOON HAZARDS BLDG. INVENTORY VULNERABILITY LOCATION TYPHOON RISK RISK ACCEPTABLE RISK UNACCEPTABLE RISK GOAL: TYPHOON DISASTER RESILIENCE PREPAREDNESS PROTECTION EARLY WARNING EMERGENCY RESPONSE RECOVERY and RECONSTRUCTION POLICY OPTIONS
  • Slide 6
  • Physics Of A Typhoon
  • Slide 7
  • HAZARDS OF A SEVERE WINDSTORM (AKA POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS) WIND FIELD [CAT 1 (55 mph) TO CAT 5+ (155 mph or greater)] DEBRIS STORM SURGE/FLOODS HEAVY PRECIPITATION/FLOODS LANDSLIDES (MUDFLOWS) COSTAL EROSION
  • Slide 8
  • WIND PENETRATING BUILDING ENVELOPE TYPHOONS UPLIFT OF ROOF SYSTEM FLYING DEBRIS STORM SURGE IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN SITING PROBLEMS FLOODING AND LANDSLIDES CAUSES OF DAMAGE DISASTER LABORATORIES
  • Slide 9
  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL TYPHOONS WITHOUT ADEQUATE PROTECTION, HIGH VELOCITY WIND WILL LIFT THE ROOF OFF OF NON- ENGINEERED BUILDINGS.
  • Slide 10
  • LESSONS LEARNED ABOUT DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL TYPHOONS. DISASTER- INTELLIGENT COMMUNITIES USE TIMELY EARLY WARNING BASED ON CRITICAL INFORM- ATION TO EVACUATE PEOPLE AND PREPARE.
  • Slide 11
  • LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL TYPHOONS CAPACITY FOR INTELLIGENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
  • Slide 12
  • NOTABLE PAST TYPHOONS THAT HAVE IMPACTED THE PHILIPPINES
  • Slide 13
  • THE WORST (in terms of deaths) Tropical storm Uring, November 2- 7, 1991, killed 3,000 8,000, mainly in Ormoc City.
  • Slide 14
  • THE MOST COSTLY Super Typhoon Reming, November 10- 14, 1990, caused economic losses of 10, 840 billion pesos
  • Slide 15
  • TYPHOON YUNYA: JUNE 1991
  • Slide 16
  • TYPHOON YUNYA Yunya would normally have been uneventful, but the day it hit Luzon, was the same day the eruption of Mount Pinatubo took place. Pinatubos ash cloud, that normally would have been dispersed across the ocean, was redistributed over Luzon by Yunyas winds, greatly exacerbating the damage caused by the eruption.
  • Slide 17
  • TYPHOON YUNYA The water-laden ash fell over the evacuated Clark Air Force Base, as well as the rest of Luzon, resulting in downed power lines and the collapse of flat-roofed buildings. In some areas, it was practically raining mud.
  • Slide 18
  • 2011 THE PHILIPPINES WAS HIT BY 19 TROPICAL STORMS AND TYPHOONS
  • Slide 19
  • TRACKS OF 2011S TYPHOONS
  • Slide 20
  • FLASH FLOODS SPAWNED BY TROPICAL STORM WASHI KILLED OVER 652 IN THE PHILIPPINES SATURDAY, DECEMBER 17, 2011
  • Slide 21
  • WASHI, THE 19 th STORM ARRIVED ON FRIDAY; DEPARTED ON SUNDAY
  • Slide 22
  • AFTER MAKING LANDFALL ON FRIDAY, TROPICAL STORM WASHI DUMPED MORE THAN A MONTHS RAIN (200 MM) IN 10 HOURS ON MINDANAO, WHICH WAS NOT (AND USUALLY IS NOT) IN THE PATH OF THE PREVIOUS TROPICAL STORMS AND TYPHOONS OF 2011
  • Slide 23
  • THE FLASH FLOODING AND MUDFLOWS, WHICH WERE TRIGGERED BY TROPICAL STORM WASHI, HAPPENED AT 2:30 AM WHILE THE VICTIMS, MOSTLY WOMEN AND CHILDREN, WERE ASLEEP
  • Slide 24
  • ONE-FOURTH OF THE CITY OF ILIGAN WAS INUNDATED IN ITS WORST FLOOD EVER
  • Slide 25
  • LOSS OF FUNCTION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAIN FLOODS INUNDATION INTERACTION WITH HAZARDOUS MATERIALS STRUCTURAL/CONTENTS DAMAGE FROM WATER WATER BORNE DISEASES (HEALTH PROBLEMS) EROSION AND MUDFLOWS CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER CAUSES OF RISK CASE HISTORIES
  • Slide 26
  • OTHERS ATTENDING EARLY MORNING CHRISTMAS MASSES WERE SURPRISED BY THE FLASH FLOODING
  • Slide 27
  • THE CITY OF CAGAYAN DE ORO IN THE NORTHERN ISLAND OF MINDANAO WAS INUNDATED BY THE FLASH FLOODS
  • Slide 28
  • SITING AND BUILDING ON UNSTABLE SLOPES LANDSLIDES SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO FALLS SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO TOPPLES SOIL AND ROCK SUCEPTIBLE TO SPREADS SOIL AND ROCK SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOWS PRECIPITATION THAT TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURE SHAKING GROUND SHAKING THAT TRIGGERS SLOPE FAILURE CAUSES OF DAMAGE CASE HISTORIES
  • Slide 29
  • LANDSLIDE: TROPICAL STORM WASHI
  • Slide 30
  • MUDFLOW: TROPICAL STORM WASHI
  • Slide 31
  • THE PHILIPPINE RED CROSS LED THE EMERGENCY RESPONSE EFFORTS PROVIDING FOOD, WATER, AND RELIEF SUPPLIES
  • Slide 32
  • 20,000 SOLDIERS DEPLOYED TO HELP IN SEARCH AND RESCUE EFFORTS FOUND BODIES EVERYWHERE: IN HOMES, IN THE STREETS, IN RIVERS, AND OFFSHORE
  • Slide 33
  • PUBLIC OFFICIALS AND HEALTH CARE FACILITIES WERE OVERWHELMED WITH THE NUMBER OF THE DEAD ESTIMATED AT NEARLY 1,000
  • Slide 34
  • RESCUE: CAYAGAN DE ORO, THE PHILIPPINES
  • Slide 35
  • Slide 36
  • Slide 37
  • LLIGAN: RESIDENTS RETURN TO START THE RECOVERY PROCESS
  • Slide 38
  • LESSONS LEARNED FOR DISASTER RESILIENCE ALL NATURAL HAZARDS CAPACITY FOR RECOVERY AND RECONSTRUCTION IS ESSENTIAL FOR COMMUNITY RESILIENCE.
  • Slide 39
  • INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE FACILITATES RECOVERY THE USA, A LONG-TERM ALLY, PLEDGED IMMEDIATE ASSISTANCE OF ALL KINDS THE CHINESE GOVERNMENT PLEDGED FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE
  • Slide 40
  • 2012 TYPHOON BOPHA STRIKES THE PHILIPPINES
  • Slide 41
  • THE FORECAST FOR THE 2012 PACIFIC TYPHOON SEASON An above average season was forecast in expectation of El Ninos impacts in the Pacific with significant impacts, as usual, in the Philippines, China, and Japan.
  • Slide 42
  • 24 STORM TRACKS AS OF DECEMBER 17, 2012
  • Slide 43
  • TROPICAL STORM MAWAR: PHILIPPINES.; MAY 31-JUNE 6
  • Slide 44
  • TROPICAL STORM DOKSURI: JUNE 25-30
  • Slide 45
  • DOKSURI IMPACTED THE PHILIPPINES, TAIWAN, AND CHINA Over $54 million in wind and water damage.
  • Slide 46
  • TYPHOON BOPHA: NOV. 29 - DEC. 5
  • Slide 47
  • TYPHOON BOPHA Bopha, the most powerful typhoon to hit Mindanao in decades, had top winds of 175 kph (110 mph) as it came ashore over the city of Baganga. Bopha destroyed buildings, triggered flooding and landslides, and killed at least 95 people.
  • Slide 48
  • TYPHOON BOPHA Millions of people living in remote and unprepared communities, were in Bophas path.
  • Slide 49
  • A landslide in eastern Mindanao blocked a national highway, leaving hundreds of people in buses, vans and cars stuck on the road.
  • Slide 50
  • POLICY ADOPTION RISK ASSESSMENT VULNERABILITYVULNERABILITY EXPOSUREEXPOSURE EVENTEVENT POLICY ASSESSMENT COSTCOST BENEFITBENEFIT CONSEQUENCESCONSEQUENCES TOWARDS TYPHOON DISASTER RESILIENCE TYPHOONSTYPHOONS EXPECTED LOSS