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  • FIGURATIVELANGUAGE

    FIGURATIVELANGUAGE

  • ii ii iiTable of Contents

    DDaaii llyy WWaarrmm--UUppss:: FFiigguurraattiivvee LLaanngguuaaggee

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vFigurative Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Alliteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Allusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Antithesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Apostrophe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Assonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Consonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Euphemism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Hyperbole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53Imagery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60Irony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Litotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79Metaphor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87Metonymy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95Onomatopoeia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

    ii ii iiTable of Contents

    DDaaii llyy WWaarrmm--UUppss:: FFiigguurraattiivvee LLaanngguuaaggee

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vFigurative Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Alliteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Allusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Antithesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Apostrophe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Assonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Consonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Euphemism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Hyperbole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53Imagery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60Irony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Litotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79Metaphor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87Metonymy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95Onomatopoeia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

  • ii vv Table of Contents, continued

    DDaaii llyy WWaarrmm--UUppss:: FFiigguurraattiivvee LLaanngguuaaggee

    Oxymoron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108Paradox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116Personification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123Pun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130Simile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144Synecdoche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150Identifying Figurative Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155Rewriting Figurative Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167

    Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

    ii vv Table of Contents, continued

    DDaaii llyy WWaarrmm--UUppss:: FFiigguurraattiivvee LLaanngguuaaggee

    Oxymoron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108Paradox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116Personification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123Pun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130Simile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144Synecdoche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150Identifying Figurative Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155Rewriting Figurative Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167

    Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

  • 11

    2005 Walch Publishing

    FFiigguurraattiivvee LLaanngguuaaggee

    DDaaii llyyWWaa

    rrmm--UU

    ppss::

    FFiigg

    uurraa

    ttiivv

    eeLL

    aann

    gguu

    aagg

    ee

    TThheerree aarree ssoo mmaannyy rreeaassoonnss why we usefigurative language: to add color, drama, persuasiveness, ornament,

    clarity, and wit. We also use it for concealment when we want tocover up our real feelings. To speak literally all the time would make

    language dull and limit our abilities to express our emotions.

    The exercises that follow will invite you to think about figurativelanguage and use it more imaginatively.

    To begin with, haul out a comprehensive dictionary and look up the wordfigurative. Write the definition.

    Did you notice the use of the word haul in the directions above? That is figurativelanguage. If your dictionary is easy to handle, you can see that this is playing withlanguage a bit to give the sentence a little color and drama.

    11

    2005 Walch Publishing

    FFiigguurraattiivvee LLaanngguuaaggee

    DDaaii llyyWWaa

    rrmm--UU

    ppss::

    FFiigg

    uurraa

    ttiivv

    eeLL

    aann

    gguu

    aagg

    ee

    TThheerree aarree ssoo mmaannyy rreeaassoonnss why we usefigurative language: to add color, drama, persuasiveness, ornament,

    clarity, and wit. We also use it for concealment when we want tocover up our real feelings. To speak literally all the time would make

    language dull and limit our abilities to express our emotions.

    The exercises that follow will invite you to think about figurativelanguage and use it more imaginatively.

    To begin with, haul out a comprehensive dictionary and look up the wordfigurative. Write the definition.

    Did you notice the use of the word haul in the directions above? That is figurativelanguage. If your dictionary is easy to handle, you can see that this is playing withlanguage a bit to give the sentence a little color and drama.

  • 22

    2005 WalchPubl

    ishing

    FFiigguurraattiivvee LLaanngguuaaggee

    DDaa

    iillyyWW

    aarrmm

    --UU

    ppss

    ::FF

    iigg

    uurraa

    ttiivveeLLaanngguuaaggee

    IInn yyoouurr ddiiccttiioonnaarryy,, look up figure of speech, imagery,and trope, and write the definitions below. Including figurativelanguage, what do all four terms have in common? Write youranswer below.

    22

    2005 WalchPubl

    ishing

    FFiigguurraattiivvee LLaanngguuaaggee

    DDaa

    iillyyWW

    aarrmm

    --UU

    ppss

    ::FF

    iigg

    uurraa

    ttiivveeLLaanngguuaaggee

    IInn yyoouurr ddiiccttiioonnaarryy,, look up figure of speech, imagery,and trope, and write the definitions below. Including figurativelanguage, what do all four terms have in common? Write youranswer below.

  • 33

    2005 Walch Publishing

    FFiigguurraattiivvee LLaanngguuaaggee

    DDaaii llyyWWaa

    rrmm--UU

    ppss::

    FFiigg

    uurraa

    ttiivv

    eeLL

    aann

    gguu

    aagg

    ee

    IInn yyoouurr ddiiccttiioonnaarryy,, look up the words literal anddenotative, and write their definitions. Then look up the words

    figurative and connotative, and write their definitions. What is thedifference between a literal, denotative use of language and a

    figurative, connotative use of language?

    33

    2005 Walch Publishing

    FFiigguurraattiivvee LLaanngguuaaggee

    DDaaii llyyWWaa

    rrmm--UU

    ppss::

    FFiigg

    uurraa

    ttiivv

    eeLL

    aann

    gguu

    aagg

    ee

    IInn yyoouurr ddiiccttiioonnaarryy,, look up the words literal anddenotative, and write their definitions. Then look up the words

    figurative and connotative, and write their definitions. What is thedifference between a literal, denotative use of language and a

    figurative, connotative use of language?

  • 66 00

    2005 WalchPubl

    ishing

    IImmaaggeerryy

    DDaa

    iillyyWW

    aarrmm

    --UU

    ppss

    ::FF

    iigg

    uurraa

    ttiivveeLLaanngguuaaggee

    IImmaaggeerryy iiss the words and details that create images andimpressions in the readers mind. Often, when we read, our mindsgo beyond the printed words to experience a sight, a smell, or afeeling that is suggested by the writing. Imagery is the language thatappeals to and calls upon our senses. It makes writing more vivid, thushelping the writing come alive. Imagery is not just visual; it can appearin many forms and can go beyond our five senses.

    Look at the following example of imagery from Adah Isaacs Menkens poemAnswer Me. The author calls upon our senses of sight and hearing as well as ouremotions of fear and recklessness.

    The trees clash in vain their naked swords against the door . . .

    The darkness presses his black forehead close to the window pane, andbeckons me without.

    What vivid language is used by the author? What image is created by the use ofthe language?

    66

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