isothiocynate glycosides

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Lecture no.3.6-10-2011Given by:- Sir Tanveer


  • 1. Isothiocyanate glycosides
    • These glycosides upon hydrolysis, yieldMustard oil.
  • Plants containing these glycosides posses non-specific resistance against infection.
  • These agents posses following properties;
  • Vesicant
  • Rubefacient

2. Black Mustard

  • Botanical origin:
  • Brassica nigra
  • Brassica juncea
  • Family:
  • Brassicaceae
  • Part used:
  • Dried seeds

3. Chemistry: Seeds contain active principleSinigrin (potassium myrinate) Upon hydrolysis, it produces; Mustard oil (allyl Isothiocyanate) In addition to this, it contains; Fixed oils Protein Mucilages Uses: Stimulant Emetic Diuretic Condiment Vesicant Rubefacient 4. Lactone Glycosides 5. Cantharide

  • Zoological origin:
  • Cantharis vesicatoria
  • Part used:
  • Dried insects
  • Collection:
  • Insects are collected during month of June an July in early morning when these are sluggish and inactive. Insects are killed by exposing them to fumes ofammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide or acetic acid . Insects are dried in an oven at temperature not exceeding 40C and packed in air tight container with few drops of chloroform or carbon tetra chloride.

6. Chemistry: Active principle isCantharidin. In addition to this, it contains; Formic acid Acetic acid Fat Fixed oil Uric acid Uses: Counter irritant Vesicant Rubefacient 7. Aldehyde glycosides 8. Vanilla

  • Botanical origin:
  • Vanilla planifolia
  • Family:
  • Orchidaceae
  • Part used:
  • Vanilla beans
  • Collection:
  • Fruit is collected when it is ripen to a yellow color. It is cured by dipping in warm water. Fruit is sun dried by placing it between woolen blankets in the sun during day and packing them in woolen blankets during night. After 2 months, 70-80% of original weight of fruit is lost and it takes a characteristic odor and color of vanilla i.e.
  • Color .. Violet black
  • Odor ... Aromatic

9. Chemistry: Before curing, vanilla contains 2 glycosides; Glucovanillin Glucovanillic acid After curing, active principle is obtained i.e.Vanillin Uses: Flavoring agent 10. Miscellaneous glycosides 11. Gentian

  • Botanical origin:
  • Gentiana lutea
  • Family:
  • Gentianaceae
  • Part used:
  • Dried rhizome and root
  • Collection:
  • Rhizome and roots are collected from 4-5yeas old plant in autumn and for drying, two methods are used;
  • Quick drying process
  • Slow drying process

12. Quick drying process

  • Drying is done immediately after collection, in sunlight. This drug contains bitter principleGentiopicrin.

Slow drying process Drying is done in open air. It takes 4-6 months for drug to dry completely.In this process, drug is allowed to ferment and loss most of its bitter principle and acquire aromatic quality that is desirable. 13. Chemistry: Active principle isGentiopicrin. After hydrolysis, it produces; Gentiogenin Glucose Uses: Flavoring agent 14. Quassia

  • Botanical origin:
  • Picrasma excelsa
  • Part used:
  • Dried stem wood
  • Collection:
  • Drug occurs as cubes or chips. It is dried in an oven at temperature not more than 40C. The drug is dried to protect from fermentation.

15. Chemistry: Active principle isQuassin. Quassin is complex of; Picrasmin Neoquassin Uses: Bitter tonic Insecticide Anthelmintic 16. Dioscorea

  • Botanical origin:
  • Dioscorea bulbifera
  • Dioscorea composita
  • Family:
  • Dioscoreaceae
  • Part used:
  • Dried rhizome and root
  • Collection:
  • Rhizome and roots are collected from 3-5years old plant in autumn.

17. Chemistry: Active principle isDioscin. Upon hydrolysis, it produces; Diosgenin Sugars ( 1 molecule of D-glucose + 2 molecules of L-rhamnose) Uses: Synthesis of cortisone and steroidal drugs