informal fallacies a very brief introduction

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INFORMAL FALLACIES A very brief introduction. L. May English 101 . INFORMAL LOGICAL FALLACIES. See video What is a fallacy? (Informal Fallacy ). INFORMAL LOGICAL FALLACIES. First, a note by way of preface: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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INFORMAL FALLACIESA very brief introductionL. MayEnglish 101 1INFORMAL LOGICAL FALLACIESSee video What is a fallacy? (Informal Fallacy)Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 2INFORMAL LOGICAL FALLACIESFirst, a note by way of preface:

There is nothing wrong with believing or not believing something. Sometimes we have reasons for our belief beyond what is rational or provable in scientific terms.Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 3INFORMAL LOGICAL FALLACIESBut when writers want to use LOGOS (logic and reasoning) to persuade their readers, they must pay attention so as to make sure their logic is sound.

Fallacious thinking will only weaken ones argument. Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 4HASTY GENERALIZATIONDEFINITION:By far one of the most common fallacies, hasty generalization occurs when we base a conclusion on insufficient evidence. Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 5HASTY GENERALIZATIONEXAMPLE 1: Ive never known any atheists who were good people, therefore atheism leads to immorality.Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 6HASTY GENERALIZATIONEXAMPLE 2: Ive seen those preachers on TV. Their greed just proves that Christianity is bunk.Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 7HASTY GENERALIZATIONEXAMPLE 3: The 9/11 terrorists were all religious. Therefore, religion is the primary source of terrorism.EXAMPLE 4: The 9/11 terrorists were not truly religious. Therefore, religion has nothing to do with terrorism.Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 8HASTY GENERALIZATIONEXAMPLE 5: Every single Christian Ive ever met was unable to explain their faith in clear terms. This just goes to show that Christianity is irrational.Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 9APPEAL TO THE POPULAR VIEWDEFINITION: This fallacy occurs when we assume that something is true based not on evidence but on the fact that many people believe it is true.

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 10APPEAL TO THE POPULAR VIEWEXAMPLE1: For with the exception of a few in whom nature is excessively depraved, the whole human race confesses God to be author of the world. (St. Augustine, 3rd Century C.E.)

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 11APPEAL TO THE POPULAR VIEWEXAMPLE 2: It is widely recognized by researchers as well as laypeople that religion is beneficial to ones psychological and physical health. Since this belief is so widely held, there can be little doubt of its accuracy.

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 12APPEAL TO IGNORANCEDEFINITION: This fallacy occurs when we say basically, Look, theres no conclusive evidence on the issue at hand. Therefore, you should accept my conclusion on this issue.

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 13APPEAL TO IGNORANCEEXAMPLE 1: People have been trying for centuries to prove that God exists. But no one has yet been able to prove it. Therefore, God does not exist.

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 14APPEAL TO IGNORANCEEXAMPLE 2: People have been trying for years to prove that God does not exist. But no one has yet been able to prove it. Therefore, God does exist.

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 15APPEAL TO IGNORANCEEXAMPLE 3: I cant believe that the medium figured all that stuff out about me without spiritual aid. He must be in touch with the paranormal.

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 16APPEAL TO PERSONAL INCREDULITY APPEAL TO PERSONAL CREDULITYDEFINITION:These fallacies occur when we argue that something is not true because we ourselves can or cannot believe it.

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 17APPEAL TO PERSONAL INCREDULITY APPEAL TO PERSONAL CREDULITYEXAMPLE 1: I cannot imagine how an all-powerful, all-good God can allow suffering. Therefore, God does not exist.

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 18APPEAL TO PERSONAL INCREDULITY APPEAL TO PERSONAL CREDULITYEXAMPLE 2: I read stories in Genesis about God killing the Egyptian first-born. I cant believe that God would kill anyone. Therefore, God does not exist.

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 19APPEAL TO PERSONAL INCREDULITY APPEAL TO PERSONAL CREDULITYEXAMPLE 3: I see the stars and the galaxies, and I cant imagine this could all be created without a Creator. Therefore, the God of the Bible exists.

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 20

ARGUMENT AGAINST THE PERSON

DEFINITION:This fallacy occurs when we avoid addressing the actual evidence and/or reasoning and simply argue that something about the person making the argument indicates that the argument cannot be valid.

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 21

ARGUMENT AGAINST THE PERSON

EXAMPLE 1: Evolutionary biology is something promoted by materialistic, atheistic, Secular Humanists in our schools in order to undermine Christianity.

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 22

ARGUMENT AGAINST THE PERSON

EXAMPLE 2: Christianity isnt true. You just believe in Christianity because you were brought up in a Christian home. If you were brought up in the Islam religion, you would be a Muslim now.

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 23

ARGUMENT AGAINST THE PERSON

EXAMPLE 3: Creation isnt true. You just believe in creation because you read that stuff on the Answers in Genesis website.

Objectives for instruction and expected results and/or skills developed from learning. 24But rememberThere is nothing wrong with believing or not believing something. Sometimes we have reasons for our belief beyond what is rational or provable in scientific terms.Conclusion to course, lecture, et al. 25But rememberBut when writers want to use LOGOS (logic and reasoning) to persuade their readers, they must pay attention so as to make sure their logic is sound. Fallacious thinking will only weaken ones argument. Conclusion to course, lecture, et al. 26Questions/DiscussionsDo you detect any logical fallacies

in Sharon Neelys A case for faith?

in Tyler Franckes Faith serves to complement reason?An opportunity for questions and discussions.27

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