informal fallacies. fallacies of relevance errors resulting from attempts to appeal to things that...
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Informal fallaciesFallacies of RelevanceErrors resulting from attempts to appeal to things that are not relevant, i.e., not really connected to or having any true bearing on the argument.Some Examples: Personal AttackAppeals to: emotion, authorityStraw ManGlittering generalitiesThe Personal AttackThe ad hominem, against the person fallacyThe issue is ignored, the argument is not the focusThe goal is to discredit the speaker, NOT what they speaker is saying.Any examples?Appeal to AuthorityUsing a well-known / important person to support a position.E.g., Wayne Gretzky selling Ford carsThe truth of a position is asserted because the _______________ says so.(it isnt necessarily false, but notice it isnt proven as true even by the authority The Authority of Criminals?"We heard from people who are involved in the criminal community that they were having second thoughts ... about the illegal business they were going to conduct and using firearms at the same time, Stockwell Day
Straw PersonThe REAL argument of the other is NOT considered.
A minor or even irrelevant part, or even something the opponent DID NOT say is presented as their position and then refuted.(imagine building something out of straw just so you can blow it away and then claim that your opponent is therefore wrong.)Begging the QuestionCircular reasoning: a premise assumes the truth that the conclusion makesAnand must be telling the truth. (the conclusion)Why? Because Anand always tells the truth. (the premise)The conclusion isnt really supported, its only repeated in a premise.Arguing from IgnoranceBecause there is no evidence that something is false, it must be true.Since you cannot prove that God does not exist, God must exist.Glittering GeneralitiesNo details given, only general statements surrounded by emotional, or glittering wordsBill is a brilliant candidate who constantly battles for truth, justice and freedom.Appeal to EmotionThe attempt to persuade is by appealing to the passions and prejudices of the audience.They may persuade people to accept the conclusion, they dont prove it.please dont fail me Mr. Jenny, I need this credit to get into __________, so that I can get a decent job to support my handicapped siblings now that were orphaned because I accidentally burned down our house BandwagonAlso known as a statistical fallacyUses popularity or public opinion as a reason for believing or supporting something.
Fallacies of InductionGuilt by AssociationAssumes that a person has (usually) negative traits because of their relationship with others who share other characteristicsThink of any stereotype for an examplePost HocJust because something happened before an event, DOES NOT make it the cause of the later eventAlso known as the FALSE CAUSEE.g., the election of an NDP government in Ontario and the later recession were not CAUSALLY RELATEDHasty ConclusionOr Hasty GeneralizationJumping to a conclusion after very few examples of support.E.g., I saw a person on welfare use the money for alcohol therefore all those on welfare cheat and buy alcohol instead of foodCard-StackingAlso known as FORGETFUL INDUCTIONOnly the facts that support my side are includedI ignore all the other facts that would rebut my positionFalse DichotomyAlso known as the false dilemmaPresents only two possibilities to an argument when in reality there are moreyoure either for us or for the terrorists.I can go to college full time or drop out.Fallacies of AmbiguityFrom using words unclearly or ambiguously, i.e., there are different possibilities of meaningsEquivocation 1 word, two different meaningsIt might look like its the middle term, but since the meanings are different, its not!AmphibolyPhrases have different meaningsEquivocationA word or expression changes meaning through the course of the argumentI saw nobody in the roomYou saw nobody in the roomWe both saw the same person: nobodyThe dual meaning is found in a WORD OR PHRASEAmphibolyThe grammatical construction of the sentence has two possible meaningsThis morning I shot an elephant in my pajamas.How he got in my pajamas Ill never know. An example
Misplaced AccentAn EMPHASIS that directs you to believe something else75% OFF* * ON SELECTED ITEMS ONLYCompositionAttributing something said of the part of something to the whole thing.e.g., these library books are really good, this must be a good library___________________ is a politician who is corrupt therefore the ___________________ party is corruptDivisionAttributing something said of the whole to a part of the wholeE.g., since this is a good library, every book in it must be goodThe USA is a wealthy country, therefore that American must be wealthy.