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Invitation to Critical ThinkingFirst Canadian EditionJoel RudinowVincent E. BarryMark LetteriChapter 12Informal Fallacies II: Assumptions and Induction
OverviewFallacious AssumptionsFallacies of Inductions
Fallacious AssumptionsInformal fallacy of false dilemmaLoaded questions Informal fallacy of innuendo Informal fallacy of begging the question or circular reasoning
Fallacious AssumptionsFalse dilemma fallacy: a fallacy of underestimating or underrepresenting the number of possible alternatives for a given issue.
Fallacious AssumptionsLoaded Questions: a question is so worded that you cant answer it without also granting a particular answer to some other question.
Fallacious AssumptionsInnuendo: a fallacy in which a judgment, usually derogatory, is implied by hinting.
Fallacious AssumptionsBegging the question or circular reasoning: a fallacy of assuming or presupposing one's conclusion as a premise.
Fallacies of InductionGeneralizationsSmall sampleUnrepresentative sampleSuppressed evidenceBad baselineAnalogiesFalse analogiesArguing ad ignorantiamInvincible ignoranceHypothetical and causal reasoningOnly game in townJumping from correlation to causePost hoc ergo propter hoc Overlooking a common causeOversimplificationSlippery slopeGamblers fallacy
Fallacies of Induction: GeneralizationsSmall sample: a fallacy of statistical inference consisting of overestimating the statistical significance of evidence drawn from a small number of cases.
Fallacies of Induction: GeneralizationsUnrepresentative sample: a fallacy of statistical inference involving overestimating the statistical significance of evidence drawn from a sample of a particular kind.
Fallacies of Induction: GeneralizationsSuppressed evidence: persuasive strategy consisting of covering up available evidence that conflicts with an intended conclusion.
Fallacies of Induction: GeneralizationsBad baseline: a fallacy of statistical inference based on an inappropriate basis of comparison.
Fallacies of Induction: AnalogiesFaulty analogy: An argument based on similarities that are irrelevant to the conclusion.An argument that glosses over relevant differences.
Fallacies of Induction: AnalogiesArguing ad ignorantiam: a fallacy of inferring a statement from the absence of evidence or lack of proof of its opposite.
Fallacies of Induction: AnalogiesInvincible ignorance: fallacy of refusing to give due consideration to evidence that conflicts with what one is already committed to believing.
Fallacies of Induction: Hypothetical and Causal ReasoningOnly game in town: concluding hastily that some explanation or solution holds true simply because one cannot think of a better one.
Fallacies of Induction: Hypothetical and Causal ReasoningJumping from correlation to cause: causal fallacy in which an observed statistical correlation is interpreted as showing a causal connection without first having made a reasonable attempt to isolate the cause by controlling the relevant variables experimentally.
Fallacies of Induction: Hypothetical and Causal ReasoningPost hoc ergo propter hoc: a variety of causal fallacy in which order of events in time is taken to establish a cause and effect relationship.
Fallacies of Induction: Hypothetical and Causal ReasoningOverlooking a common cause: causal fallacy in which one of two effects of some common cause is taken to cause the other.
Fallacies of Induction: Hypothetical and Causal ReasoningCausal oversimplification: a variety of causal fallacy in which significant causal factors or variables are overlooked.
Fallacies of Induction: Hypothetical and Causal ReasoningGamblers fallacy: any of a variety of fallacies of inductive reasoning concerning estimating or beating the odds, often based on the use of past outcomes to predict the future outcome of chance events.
Fallacies of Induction: Hypothetical and Causal ReasoningSlippery slope: a fallacy consisting of objecting to something on the grounds that it will lead, by dubious causal reasoning, to some unacceptable set of consequences.