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  • Invitation to Critical ThinkingFirst Canadian EditionJoel RudinowVincent E. BarryMark LetteriChapter 12Informal Fallacies II: Assumptions and Induction

    www.criticalthinking1ce.nelson.com

  • OverviewFallacious AssumptionsFallacies of Inductions

  • Fallacious AssumptionsInformal fallacy of false dilemmaLoaded questions Informal fallacy of innuendo Informal fallacy of begging the question or circular reasoning

  • Fallacious AssumptionsFalse dilemma fallacy: a fallacy of underestimating or underrepresenting the number of possible alternatives for a given issue.

  • Fallacious AssumptionsLoaded Questions: a question is so worded that you cant answer it without also granting a particular answer to some other question.

  • Fallacious AssumptionsInnuendo: a fallacy in which a judgment, usually derogatory, is implied by hinting.

  • Fallacious AssumptionsBegging the question or circular reasoning: a fallacy of assuming or presupposing one's conclusion as a premise.

  • Fallacies of InductionGeneralizationsSmall sampleUnrepresentative sampleSuppressed evidenceBad baselineAnalogiesFalse analogiesArguing ad ignorantiamInvincible ignoranceHypothetical and causal reasoningOnly game in townJumping from correlation to causePost hoc ergo propter hoc Overlooking a common causeOversimplificationSlippery slopeGamblers fallacy

  • Fallacies of Induction: GeneralizationsSmall sample: a fallacy of statistical inference consisting of overestimating the statistical significance of evidence drawn from a small number of cases.

  • Fallacies of Induction: GeneralizationsUnrepresentative sample: a fallacy of statistical inference involving overestimating the statistical significance of evidence drawn from a sample of a particular kind.

  • Fallacies of Induction: GeneralizationsSuppressed evidence: persuasive strategy consisting of covering up available evidence that conflicts with an intended conclusion.

  • Fallacies of Induction: GeneralizationsBad baseline: a fallacy of statistical inference based on an inappropriate basis of comparison.

  • Fallacies of Induction: AnalogiesFaulty analogy: An argument based on similarities that are irrelevant to the conclusion.An argument that glosses over relevant differences.

  • Fallacies of Induction: AnalogiesArguing ad ignorantiam: a fallacy of inferring a statement from the absence of evidence or lack of proof of its opposite.

  • Fallacies of Induction: AnalogiesInvincible ignorance: fallacy of refusing to give due consideration to evidence that conflicts with what one is already committed to believing.

  • Fallacies of Induction: Hypothetical and Causal ReasoningOnly game in town: concluding hastily that some explanation or solution holds true simply because one cannot think of a better one.

  • Fallacies of Induction: Hypothetical and Causal ReasoningJumping from correlation to cause: causal fallacy in which an observed statistical correlation is interpreted as showing a causal connection without first having made a reasonable attempt to isolate the cause by controlling the relevant variables experimentally.

  • Fallacies of Induction: Hypothetical and Causal ReasoningPost hoc ergo propter hoc: a variety of causal fallacy in which order of events in time is taken to establish a cause and effect relationship.

  • Fallacies of Induction: Hypothetical and Causal ReasoningOverlooking a common cause: causal fallacy in which one of two effects of some common cause is taken to cause the other.

  • Fallacies of Induction: Hypothetical and Causal ReasoningCausal oversimplification: a variety of causal fallacy in which significant causal factors or variables are overlooked.

  • Fallacies of Induction: Hypothetical and Causal ReasoningGamblers fallacy: any of a variety of fallacies of inductive reasoning concerning estimating or beating the odds, often based on the use of past outcomes to predict the future outcome of chance events.

  • Fallacies of Induction: Hypothetical and Causal ReasoningSlippery slope: a fallacy consisting of objecting to something on the grounds that it will lead, by dubious causal reasoning, to some unacceptable set of consequences.