how our body fights to keep us healthy

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Post on 13-Jan-2016




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How our body fights to keep us healthy. And how we can help it!. How the body becomes ill. The body can become ill because of – Bacteria Viruses. What can bacteria cause if they get into the body?. Stomach ache Tooth decay Spots Infected cuts Food poisoning Cholera. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • How our body fights to keep us healthyAnd how we can help it!

  • How the body becomes illThe body can become ill because of


  • What can bacteria cause if they get into the body?Stomach acheTooth decaySpotsInfected cutsFood poisoningCholera

  • What can viruses cause if they get into the body?Chicken poxColdsMeaslesMumpsWhooping cough

  • Common cold virus

  • What happens when microbes gets past the first line of defenceThe body constantly makes defence cells to fight microbes. It keeps a store of themIt makes many different kinds of defence cells to cope with all the different kinds of microbes and the different ways they can attack the body - some can be very sneaky!*

  • Lets look at three of the defence cellsNeutrophils found in the blood stream. They are on the look out for microbes. When they find them they release chemicals that kill the germs but they die also not to worry as the body makes about 5 thousand million every hour!!

  • Different kinds of defence cells

    Macrophages they capture and eat the microbes, they also clean up any dust and dirt that gets into our body through breathing. Therefore there are lots of them to be found in the lungs.

  • Macrophage

  • Different kinds of defence cells Some defender cells make antibodies* that sticks to microbes and which Neutrophils and Macrophages are now able to remove.

  • The Immune SystemAll the defender cells are part of our Immune System.Sometimes though, the immune system needs help and that is when the doctor may prescribe an antibiotic. Antibiotics can only kill bacteria they cannot kill viruses.

  • Video on the Immune System click on the immune cells

  • What we can do to prevent getting infected by bacteria and virusesHygiene - Wash hands, use a tissue etcEat healthy food to keep defender cells fighting fit and help good bacteria in bodyEat good bacteriaExercise to help remove waste from body and keep lymph flowingVaccinations

  • VaccinationsScientist* found a way to protect us against some of the diseases that can make us illIt all began with a doctor called Edward Jenner.

    The vaccinations have a weak form of the virus.When injected into our body it makes our white blood cells react as if the virus is still dangerous and makes antibodiesThe virus is too weak to make us ill but now we have antibodies ready so if the original measles virus gets into our body we already have the weapon to attack it straight away and so we do not get ill or only feel mildly unwell

  • Good bacteriaNot all bacteria hurt us some help us, some live in our intestines they help by;

    Making a waste product that we need and can use e.g. vitamins Biotin, Folic Acid, Vit B12Making Vitamin K which helps the blood to clotStrengthening our immune system to fight the bad germs or even directly attacking and digesting some of the bad germs in the gut

  • Where do the good bacteria come from?They are all around us

    Raw foods e.g. on skins of grapesIn live Probiotic yoghurts and yoghurt drinks like YakhultPassed from mum to baby

  • What we can do to increase the good bacteria?Eat them through live yoghurts etcDried form in capsulesFeed them by eating - - Whole oats and other whole grains - Fresh vegetables e.g.wheatgrass to chicory, cabbage, onions, leeks and asparagus - Pumpkin, sunflower and other seeds; - Lignans in liquids like olive oil and aloe vera. - Fresh and dried fruits like bananas and apricots.

  • Allergies

  • Sometimes the defender cells get it wrongWhen this happens it can trigger hay fever or asthma - difficulty breathing properly, sneezing, itchy eyes, etc.

  • Why this happensWhen pollen, dust, cats and dogs skin cells are breathed in some peoples defender cells think these are harmful and make antibodies that stick onto defender cells called Basophils. When next time any of these things are breathed in by a person whose Basophils contain an antibody specific for one of them then the Basophils explode as they meets the pollen grains and release cell-destroying chemicals that make you have the symptoms of hay fever.

    Bacteria are all around us some can hurt us some can help usWhere can bacteria be found? in the air; yogurt; on a person's hands; in raw meat; in a person's mouth or stomach; in waste, soil, or contaminated water.) From food that has not been properly stored of cooked Through cuts from soil and dirtViruses all around

    Badly prepared or stored food bacteria will start to grow and then if the food is eaten the bacteria gets into our body and we get stomach upsets sickness and diarrhea

    Spots boils infected hair follicle

    Cholera infected water as in South Africa

    1st line of defence skin, eyes, ears, saliva in mouth and nose Macrophage means "big eater". Macrophages are white blood cells that crawl around in the extracellular fluids of your body and gobble up microbes and other foreign material. They ingest these microbes by phagocytosis ("cell eating"). Parts of the cell surround the particle to be eaten, then the macrophage's membrane flows together and the particle ends up inside. In this image, metal particles were eaten, and they are the black spots inside the orange vacuoles. The nucleus is purple, and mitochondria are green. *they look like a Y shape. These markers make it easier for the defender cells Neutrophils and macrophages to find them.

    *Plus lymph nodes, lymph, spleen, the bone marrow, thymus and Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)

    See lesson plan for Edward Jenner story

    These antibodies (Y shaped) stick to the microbe so it can easily be identified by the Neutrophils and macrophages and they can get rid of them before they have chance to make us ill

    Link to web?? can trigger allergic responses by stimulating mast cells to release histamine. hence when we have an allergy we itch, sneeze, have runny eyes and nose