Healthy Living - Chapter 10 - Body Weight & Its Management

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_________________________________________ Terry L. PattersonDirector of Distance LearningSouth Arkansas Community CollegePO Box 7010El Dorado, Arkansas 71731(870) 864-8406 - 800-955-2289 ext. 406


<ul><li> 1. Body Weight and Its Management </li> <li> 2. Overweight and Obesity <ul><li>Conditions characterized by excessive and unhealthy amounts of body fat </li></ul><ul><li>Result from a complex combination of biological, psychological, environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Obesitya chronic metabolic disease that is extremely difficult to treat </li></ul></li> <li> 3. Overweight and Obesity (continued) <ul><li>The majority of adult Americans have too much body fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight and obesity are the most common nutritional disorder in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>These conditions often result from a combination of poor diet and lack of physical activity. </li></ul></li> <li> 4. Overweight and Obesity (continued) <ul><li>A healthy body is not fat-free. </li></ul><ul><li>Adipose cells store extra energy from food as triglyceride (fat). </li></ul><ul><li>As more excess energy is consumed, fat cells continue to store it as fat and increase in size. </li></ul><ul><li>Under certain conditions, more fat cells can develop. </li></ul></li> <li> 5. Defining Overweight and Obese <ul><li>Height and weight tables are no longer used to determine whether a person is overweight or obese. </li></ul><ul><li>The body mass index (BMI) is used to determine if a person weighs too much. </li></ul><ul><li>BMI is a ratio of height to weight. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>To calculate BMI, multiply weight (lbs) by 705; then divide the number by height in inches squared. </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 6. Body Mass Index <ul><li><ul><li>BMIs of less than 18.5 are in the underweight range. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>BMIs of between 18.5 and 24.9 are considered healthy. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>BMIs of 25.0 to 29.9 are within the overweight range. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>BMIs of over 30.0 are in the obese range. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>BMIs of 40 or more are referred to as morbid , extreme , or super obese. </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 7. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity <ul><li>In the United States, the prevalence of excess body fat has reached epidemic proportions. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>In 1980, almost 50% of adults were overweight or obese. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>By 2004, 66% of adults were too fat. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Nearly 1 in 3 adults were obese. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>American children are growing fatter, too. </li></ul><ul><li>The WHO recognizes obesity as a worldwide health problem ( globesity ). </li></ul></li> <li> 8. Health Risks <ul><li>Overweight and obese people have higher than average risks of: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Osteoarthritis </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Sleep apnea </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Gallbladder disease </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Carpal tunnel syndrome </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Gout </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Metabolic syndrome </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 9. Health Risks (continued) <ul><li>Certain cancers: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Colon </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Breast (menopausal women) </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Kidney </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Surgery is riskier </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing problems </li></ul></li> <li> 10. Health Risks (continued) <ul><li>Fertility problems </li></ul><ul><li>Gestational diabetes, hypertension during pregnancy, and giving birth to babies with birth defects </li></ul><ul><li>Interference with daily activities like walking, carrying, kneeling, and stooping </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological depression, particularly among obese women </li></ul></li> <li> 11. The Caloric Cost of Living <ul><li>The body expends 50% to 70% of calories to fuel vital metabolic activities, including: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Building and repairing tissues </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Breathing </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Circulating and filtering blood </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Producing and transporting substances </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Maintaining body temperature </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 12. The Caloric Cost of Living (continued) <ul><li>Factors that influence the metabolic rate include: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Genetics </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Thyroid hormone </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Proportion of muscle to fat </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Age </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 13. The Caloric Cost of Living (continued) <ul><li>Physical Activity </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Calories are needed to move skeletal muscles. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Number of calories used is influenced by: </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Type of activity </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Size of person </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 14. Energy for Physical Activities <ul><li>The amount of energy needed for physical activity depends on the activity, its duration, and intensity. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activities include: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Sport types of exercise </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Movement for daily living </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Spontaneous muscular movement </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Health experts recommend that adults perform at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Each day, the typical American expends more energy for physical activities associated with daily living than for sport types of activities. </li></ul></li> <li> 15. Caloric Cost of Living: TEF <ul><li>Energy expended for physical activity and vital energy needs require about 90% of bodys energy use. </li></ul><ul><li>After eating a meal, the body needs a small amount of energy to digest, absorb, and process nutrients from food. </li></ul><ul><li>Thermic effect of food ( TEF ) accounts for less than 10% of total energy needs. </li></ul></li> <li> 16. Energy Balance <ul><li>When: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Caloric intake equals caloric output, weight is maintained. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Caloric intake is more than caloric output, weight gain occurs. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Caloric intake is less than caloric output, weight loss occurs. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>One pound of fat represents about 3,500 calories. </li></ul></li> <li> 17. Body Composition <ul><li>Healthy adults consist of: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>About 60% water </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>6% to 22% protein </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>3% minerals </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Remaining weight is mostly fat </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Body fat for healthy adults </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>About one-half of an average persons fat is subcutaneous. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Cellulite does not exist; its the same as other fat. </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 18. Estimating Body Fat <ul><li>Hydrostatic weighing (underwater) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Very reliable but not practical or convenient </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Bioelectrical impedance </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Uses electrical currents to estimate percentage of fat </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Small device needed but can provide accurate estimate </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 19. Estimating Body Fat (continued ) <ul><li>Near-Infrared Interactance (Infrared) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Infrared light is used to estimate percentage of fat (through biceps muscle of upper arm) </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Often underestimates </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Measures fat and bone density </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Accurate, but expensive </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Requires X-ray technician to perform measurement </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 20. Estimating Body Fat (continued) <ul><li>Skinfold Thicknesses </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li> Pinch an inch method </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Practical and less costly than above methods </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Reliability of measurements can be questionable </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Waist Circumference </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Determines distribution of fat in abdominal area </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Need flexible measuring tape </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 21. Estimating Body Fat (continued) <ul><li>Distribution of fat is a more important risk factor than percentage of fat. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Apple-shapes </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>More fat in the central part of body than below waist </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Greater risk of serious health problems </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Pear-shapes </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Have excess body fat below waist </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Less risk of serious health problems than when fat is centrally located </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 22. Causes of Obesity: Biological Influences <ul><li>Genetics </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Genes code for: </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Body frame </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Fat distribution </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Hormones that regulate appetite and metabolism </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Some people have thrifty metabolisms that tend to conserve energy as fat. </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 23. Causes of Obesity: Biological Influences (continued) <ul><li><ul><li>According to the set point theory , the level of body fat is genetically preset. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Hunger is the physiological drive to seek and eat food. </li></ul><ul><li>Appetite is the psychological desire to eat specific foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Satiety is the feeling that enough food has been eaten to relieve hunger and turn off appetite. </li></ul></li> <li> 24. Causes of Obesity: Biological Influences (continued) <ul><li>The digestive system, brain, and fat cells play important roles in controlling hunger and satiety. </li></ul><ul><li>The composition of the diet can affect body weight. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Excess calories from carbohydrate, protein, fat, and alcohol can result in weight gain. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>A high-fat diet is associated with overeating and gaining body fat. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 25. Causes of Obesity: Other Influences <ul><li>A variety of environmental, social, and psychological factors promote overeating. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Portion sizes have increased. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Certain types of restaurants encourage overeating. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Fast food and family-style restaurants often promote super-sized portions as bargains. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Advertising makes food look more appealing. </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 26. Causes of Obesity: Other Influences (continued) <ul><li><ul><li>Food availability and convenience, e.g., pizza delivery 24 hours a day </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Tendency to overeat during holidays and family gatherings </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Sedentary lifestyles </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Moods </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 27. Weight Management <ul><li>Balance food intake with energy expenditure. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid fad diets. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Usually result in temporary weight loss </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Promote gimmicks </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Often are nutritionally inadequate </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Fasting may be dangerous </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Increase physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Change eating and physical activity habits for life. </li></ul></li> <li> 28. Role of Physical Activity <ul><li>Daily exercise helps people lose or maintain weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise for at least 30 minutes a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activities such as walking, jogging, biking, swimming are recommended; choose enjoyable ones. </li></ul><ul><li>People over age 40 should obtain approval of personal physician before beginning a vigorous exercise program. </li></ul></li> <li> 29. Other Methods of Weight Control <ul><li>Surgical methods </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Gastric bypass </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Liposuction </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Medications </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Appetite suppressants </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Fat absorption reduction (small intestine) </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 30. Successful Weight Loss Strategies <ul><li>Sensible and safe weight loss plans: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Are medically and nutritionally sound </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Include practical ways to engage in physical activity </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Are adaptable to ones psychological and social needs </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Can be followed for a lifetime </li></ul></li></ul></li> <li> 31. Successful Weight Loss Strategies (continued) <ul><li>Set realistic weight loss goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize behavior modification. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Eat nutritiously as well as develop physical activity habits. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Follow the MyPyramid Plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in at least 30 minutes of physical activity daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek family or other forms of social support. </li></ul><ul><li>Include long-term plan for maintaining new weight. </li></ul></li> <li> 32. Weight Gain <ul><li>To gain weight by increasing lean tissue: </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Need at least 7001,000 additional calories per day </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Eat three meals per day plus snacks. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>No more than 30% calories from fat. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Perform muscle-building exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain effort over long term. </li></ul></li> <li> 33. Across the Life Span <ul><li>Average weight gain during pregnancy is 25 to 35 pounds. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Underweight women can gain more weight; overweight women can gain a few pounds less than average, but they should gain at least 20 pounds. </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Food restriction and weight loss may be hazardous to developing fetus. </li></ul><ul><li>Lose weight before or after pregnancy. </li></ul></li> <li> 34. Across the Life Span (continued) <ul><li>Low-calorie or fat-restricted diets are not recommended for children under 2 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Overweight children need more physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li><ul><li>Limit time spent engaging in sedentary activities. </li></ul></li></ul></li></ul><ul><li>Contrary to conventional wisdom, elderly persons may enjoy good health and live longer by being overweight and even obese. </li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Serve as energy source </li></ul></li></ul><ul><li><ul><li>Can protect from serious internal injuries when they fall </li></ul></li></ul></li> </ul>