FUNCTION OF BASIC INGREDIENTS IN BAKING AND PASTRY

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FUNCTION OF BASIC INGREDIENTS IN BAKING AND PASTRY RULES AND REGULATIONS RELATED TO PERSONAL HYGIENE , FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION

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  • 1. TITLE : THE FUNCTION OF BASIC INGREDIENTS IN BAKING AND PASTRY RULES AND REGULATIONS RELATED TO PERSONAL HYGIENE , FOOD SAFETY AND SANITATION.
  • 2. FAT, in the form of solid shortening, margarine or butter,or in the liquid form of oil contributes tenderness, moistness, and a smooth mouthfeel to baked goods. FAT
  • 3. Shortening : . The flakiness of pastry comes from solid fat such as shortening or lard rolled in layers with flour. In some recipes for cookies or cake, shortening is creamed with sugar to trap air. A lighter product will result. Margarine Butter : Butter is made from cream Butter imparts a good flavor without a greasy mouth feel to baked because it melts at body temperature. Oil : Oil is used in some muffin, bread and cake recipes. TYPES OF FAT
  • 4. Add moistness and richness Increase quality Add flavor Assist in leavening to give flakiness FUNCTION OF FAT
  • 5. Sugar derived from sugarcane and beets Sugar is simple made up of fructose,and glucose. This two simple sugar join to create sucrose Have different sweetness Example : i. Lactose is much less sweet than regular table sugar (sucrose) ii. Fructose (or fruit sugar,one of the sugars is honey) much sweeter than sucrose. SUGAR
  • 6. FUNCTION OF SUGAR
  • 7. Granulated sugar (table sugar) Divided by 3 types of sugar : i. Very fine or ultrafine sugars ii. Sanding sugars iii. Pearl sugars Brown sugar Give good flavor and cream well not unlike caramel to taste Icing sugar Provide excellent smoothness and spreadability Non nutritive sweetness Sugar free and no sugar added claims TYPE OF SUGAR
  • 8. White granulated sugar that has been dissolved in water before it is used. Liquid sugar is darker in colour and can be used in foods where brown colour is desired. Example of syrups : i. Molasses ii. Glucose corn syrups iii. Honey iv. Malt syrups SYRUPS
  • 9. Baking Soda Produces gas for leavening when combined with an acidic ingredient such as vinegar, lemon juice, or molasses. Reducing the amount of baking soda without replacing it with another leavening agent will reduce the volume and lightness of the finished product. Baking Powder Baking powder contains baking soda and the right amount of acid to react with it. Batters made with double acting baking powder rise twice; once when dry and moist ingredients are mixed together, and again when the product is baked. Yeast Yeast is a living microorganism until it is destroyed by heat. Using less yeast than specified in a recipe causes the dough to take longer to reach the desired volume in the rising stages. LEAVENING AGENT
  • 10. Patent Flour Flour from interior endosperm,extracted during first stream of milling,considered highest grades of flour. Clear flour Portion of endosperm left after the patent flour is removed. Extraction Refer to the amount of flour miled from given amount of grain Straight flour Combining all streams of the milling process or from the entire endosperm. FLOUR GRADES
  • 11. Bread flour High-gluten flour Cake flour Pastry flour European flour types TYPES OF PATERN FLOUR
  • 12. Wheat Flour o provides the structure in baked goods. o The protein content of a flour affects the strength of a dough. All Purpose Flour o can be used for all baking purposes. Durum flour o Used to make spaghetti and other dried pasta. Whole wheat flour o It contains gluten-forming proteins ,so can be used alone in bread making. Cracked wheat o Give texture and flavor to some specialty breads OTHERS WHEAT FLOUR
  • 13. Function of eggs i. Add taste ii. Emulsion iii. Improve the texture iv. Colour v. Food value vi. Leavening agents vii. Moisture EGG
  • 14. The best grade (AA) has firm white and yolk that stand up high when broken onto a flat surface. Maintaining quality Do not spread over a large area. Proper storage is essential for maintaining quality. Eggs keep for a weeks if held at 36 F ( 2 C) GRADE AND QUALITY
  • 15. Hygiene o To prevent cross contamination of food it is essential to wash your hands frequently. Examples include: before starting work before handling food between handling raw and ready to eat foods after going to the toilet after handling raw foods after handling waste after eating, drinking or smoking, coughing, sneezing or touching your face after taking a break after handling chemicals after handling money RULES AND REGULATION
  • 16. In addition, it is important that staff maintain a high degree of personal hygiene with regard their personal habits. For example: no smoking in food areas no coughing, sneezing, spitting over food no strong smelling perfumes should be worn when handling foods no nail varnish should be worn when handling food no jewellery other than a plain wedding band or sleeper earrings should be worn All cuts, wounds, sores should be covered with a waterproof dressing. Over-clothing should be clean and present no risk of contamination to food. Hair should be tidy and covered where necessary to prevent the risk of it falling into food.
  • 17. o A system called HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point consists of seven important steps to ensure food safety. o The 7 steps of HACCP are as follows : 1. Assess hazards and potential risks. 2. Identify critical control points including cross contamination, cooking, cooling, hygiene. 3. Set up procedures to make sure safety is maintained at all critical control points. 4. Monitor critical control points and use the correct signs, tools, and training materials to ensure this. 5. Take corrective actions as soon as a critical control point is in jeopardy or when any violations are pointed out by the Health Department. 6. Set up a record-keeping system to log all of your flowcharts and temperature checks 7. Keep up with the system to make sure it is working. FOOD SAFETY
  • 18. Put all wastes into bins that are not used for anything else. Empty the bins periodically during the day away from the processing site. Prevent all animals from entering the processing area or storerooms. Visitors should only enter the processing room wearing protective clothing and under supervision. Keep food covered wherever possible. Keep all food, tools and equipment off the floor. Store ingredients in sealed containers. Do not use broken or dirty equipment. Report any signs of insects, rodents or birds to the manager. SANITATION

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