The history-of-baking-and-baking-ingredients

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  • 1. History ofHistory of BakingBaking

2. The Roman Empire Inevitably Greek culture influenced the Roman Empire ; bakery know-how was transformed and really flourished. During the fourth century A.D., evidence also emerges of the first pastry-cooks association or pastillarium in those times nomenclature. 3. Records show that already in the years 2600-2100 B.C. bread was baked by who it is believed had learned the skill from the Babylonians. A relief representing the royal bakery of Ramses features bread and cakes, some of these were shaped in the form of animals and used for sacrifices The Egyptians 4. Baking The term baking means the use of heat in an oven to convert flour, water, yeast, sugar and such, into baked goods. 5. Baking is a way of preparing food by the process of conduction, generally in a closed oven. In the process of baking, starch content in the food is processed usually decreased that provides the food a brown color which lends it an attractive and appetizing look. 6. On todays market there is a never ending variety of the most delicious sweets and pastries to please both the palate and the eyes. Baking pastries are a little more complicated because everything is measured to the exact amount needed no more or less. 7. The baked food even lasts long. It does not stale easily, as it contains less moisture. Caramelization of sugar is a reaction that gives the food a golden brown color. Also when the baked goods are fully cooked they are usually light golden brown to a deep golden brown. 8. Everything has to be perfect or the product being made wont come out the way it is suppose to be. Cooking is much more different. It isnt measured just added by eye or to the taste. 9. The French are Responsible for making several pastry dough's. They are the ones who created Puff Pastry which is a flour and water dough that has butter in between every layer. When the dough is being baked the dough rises because of the butter being evaporated, the steam from the water in the butter causes it to rise and that were the term puff pastry comes from. 10. Danish pastry was created by the Austrians. This is a yeast dough that has butter between each layer and is usually eaten for breakfast or as a dessert. There are several types of Danish pastries. 11. Pate Choux is a type of dough that is cooked twice. The dough is made of flour, water, milk, eggs, and salt. First it is cooked in a pot and then in the oven. This dough is used for sweet and savory hors d'oeuvres. 12. Petit Fours are small cakes, and cookies. They are usually served at wedding and big parties or meetings. They are many varieties of petit fours. Petit Fours in French means little oven. They are also they most expensive because they are so hard to decorate. They range from $1.50- $4.00 a piece. 13. INGRIDIENTS IN BAKING 14. A. FLOUR THE PRIMARY INGREDIENT IN BAKING 15. BREAD FLOUR - Contains the largest amount of protein 12 TO 14 %. Bread flour is used for yeast raised bread because the dough it produces has more gluten than dough made with other flours. TYPES OF FLOUR 16. ALL PURPOSE FLOUR - Contains 10 -12% protein.This is sometimes referred to as family flour or general flour. - Is blended during milling to achieve a protein content of 10.5 percent. This medium protein flour can be used for all baking purposes. If using all purpose flour in place of cake flour in a recipe, substitute 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all purpose flour for 1 cup cake flour. 17. CAKE FLOUR - Contains the least percentage of protein. It is also called as weak flour. - Is a soft wheat flour that is 7.5 percent protein. The lower gluten content causes products to have a tender, more crumbly texture that is desirable in cake. 18. READY MIXED FLOUR- Are premixed flour. Some ingredients such as salt, baking powder, milk solids and sugar have been added 19. Has about 6.5-7 protein and does not form gluten. For people who do not tolerate gluten, rice flour is an acceptable substitute for wheat, barley, rye or oat flours. In baked products, 7/8 cup of non-waxy rice flour can be used in place of 1 cup all purpose wheat flour. RICE FLOUR 20. Another non-gluten forming flour is usually used in combination with other flours. It has a mild potato taste. For substitutions, 5/8 cup of potato flour can be used for 1 cup of all purpose flour. SOY FLOUR Contains 50 percent protein and is used primarily to boost the protein content of baked goods. Soy flour cannot form gluten and does not contain starch. Its use in large amounts affects the taste of baked goods and causes them to brown quickly. An acceptable substitution is to take 2 tablespoons flour out of each cup of flour in a recipe and add 2 tablespoons soy flour . . POTATO STARCH FLOUR 21. is often used in combination with wheat flour for bread. Light rye flour can be successfully substituted for 40 percent of wheat flour in a recipe without loss of volume. Medium and dark rye flours should be limited to 30 percent and 20 percent, respectively, of the total flour amount RYEFLOUR 22. flour may be substituted for part of the white flour in yeast and quick bread recipes, but the volume of the finished product will be reduced. Whole wheat flour contains the nutritious germ and bran as well as the endosperm of the wheat kernel. Bran particles cut through the gluten during mixing and kneading of bread dough, resulting in a smaller, heavier loaf. If substituting a very coarsely ground whole wheat flour for all purpose flour, use 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons whole wheat flour for every cup of all purpose flour. To substitute whole wheat flour in a white bread recipe, use half whole wheat and half bread flour for the best results. WHOLE WHEAT 23. has a relatively high protein content, 17 percent, but does not form gluten. Oat flour can be substituted for as much as 1/3 of wheat flour in bread. Cornmeal is coarsely ground dried corn. Corn flour is more finely ground corn. Both corn flour and corn meal contain 7-8 percent protein on a dry basis. Neither corn meal nor corn flour will form gluten. A grainy texture in cornbread can be avoided by mixing the cornmeal with the liquid from the recipe, bringing to a boil, and cooling before mixing with the other ingredients. OAT FLOUR 24. SUBSTANCES THAT PRODUCES GASES WHEN MIXED WITH OTHER INGREDIENTS CAUSING MIXTURES TO RISE. B. LEAVENING AGENTS 25. These leaveners release gas into the product. Generally, the gas released (from baking powder) is carbon dioxide. Baking powders come as single or double action baking powder. A single action baking powder gives off all its gas as soon as it is mixed with moisture. A double action baking powder releases only a small amount of gas when mixed with moisture. Most is released during the baking process. Double Action (like Blue Ribbon) baking powder is preferred in quantity cooking. TYPES OF LEAVENING AGENTS Chemica l Agents 26. produces gas for leavening when combined with an acidic ingredient such as vinegar, lemon juice, or molasses. The volume of quick breads, cookies, cakes, and some candies depends largely on the amount of baking soda added to the batter or dough. Reducing the amount of baking soda without replacing it with another leavening agent will reduce the volume and lightness of the finished product. Baking Soda 27. contains baking soda and the right amount of acid to react with it. Batters made with double acting baking powder rise twice; once when dry and moist ingredients are mixed together, and again when the product is baked. BAKING POWDER 28. Sourdough is made by bacterial action. Yeast is a plant that is used as a leavener. Just as all plants, yeast requires air, warmth, moisture, and food for growth. Yeast produces an enzyme which splits the sugar molecule up into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Biological Leavening Agents 29. is a living microorganism until it is destroyed by heat. As yeast grows and multiplies it gives off carbon dioxide which causes the dough to rise. Its action is affected by the addition or deletion of other ingredients such as salt and sugar. Using less yeast than specified in a recipe causes the dough to take longer to reach the desired volume in the rising stages. YEAST 30. Water and air make a product rise by physical means. Water makes up a big proportion of milk. Other ingredients such as eggs and butter also have water in them. When heated, water turns to steam. When water changes to steam, its volume increases by approximately 1600 times. Steam also rises when it heats. As it rises, the steam takes the product with it. Physical Leavening Agents 31. adds flavour to a product and controls the rate of growth of yeast. Since yeast is a plant, its growth is affected by the concentration of salt. SALT 32. is the most recognized sweetener in the baking world. Sugar is available in different varieties; white, brown, powdered and even more exotic types, but all of these add sweetness to a recipe. Beyond being a sweetener, sugar actually maintains a complex role in baked goods. Sugar can contribute texture, including creaminess in frostings, crunchiness in cookies, and tender moistness in cakes. Sugar caramelizes when exposed to high heat. SUGAR 33. As with flour, eggs provide a structural ingredient in baked foods. They are often considered leaveners, much like yeast or baking powder, and they assist in binding ingredients in a recipe together and providing a structure for baked goods as they rise. Eggs also add color to baked goods, such as brioche, a golden egg-based bread. Eggs are important thickeners in custards and other creamy foods, and they are even used as glazes for pastries and breads. EGGS 34. ispigfat can be obtained from any part of the pig as long as there is a high concentration offatty tissue. it ideal for use in baked goods, where it is valued for its ability to produce flaky, moist pie crusts


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