four noble truths

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In commemoration of 2500tb year of Buddhism FOURNOBLETRUr-rHS (D. lin, TheFour NobleTruths(EnglishVersion) Composed Professor Re'rukane'Chandawimala Supreme master ofBuddhist Mahanayaka Thera EnglishTranslation by: ViranjeewaWecrakkody Published by : Chandawimala Dbamma TreatisesPreservationBoard Printed by.' Prakasakayo 144, Weniwelkola, Polgasowita. Tel01-704152 FromtheSecretaryof theSriChandawimala Dhamma TreatisesBoard .. Buddhism isPhilosophical aswellascloselyhannonious to Science. The worldwillbe abetter place,moresalubriousandmore serenemuchmoreextentthansituationthathas beenforth now onmaterialiststheological dog-matistsare alsoanattemptmade by deni-zens of the world, leaving behind their preconceived notions, to dis-cern the discourses and the doctrinology of Buddhism. At the 2500th anniversary of Buddhism, which dawned in1956, Chandawimalain yetwholesome at-homeof Buddhism. wrote 28 books onBuddhist themes,are inexpression, depth and profundity, that are equal or better of any other such trea-tise. Severalattemptsthatweremadetomakeavailablethe Mahathcra's worksweresuccessfulandfailure.It de-arllounted tofinding a personthe requisite (dhamma)English, depth of understanding andthe commitment needed to execute such a task. Mr. Viranjeewa Weerakkody byelecting himself totranslate it whichdidwithin aof timeextended his helpingto proof readthe book wasprinting. Mr. \Veerakkody'shome thetruth should be highly complimented. CoThaoippuli Arachi Han. Secretary of the Sri Chandawimala Dhamma TreatisesBoard. 2003.05. Pokunuvna. About the Author07 Preface10 TranslatorsPreface13 The Four Noble Truths (GeneralIntroduction)17 Importance &Realizing of the Four Noble Truths18 The Twomodes of26 Differentiation of32 FNTs(Particular)36 The Fact of Suffering40 Material Form or41 1\venty For Upadaya Rupa43 Material Elements Born of Food.47 VedanaSkanka48 Sannaskandha51 Sanskaraskandha53 The Four Natural Qualities of Suffering59 Suffering Entailed60 Suffering In The64 Suffering In the Human66 Suffering In The Hells73 The Twelve Modes80 Dukkha Samudyarya Satya97 (WhySuffering Pervades the Worlds? Craving and its Ramifications98 TheCauseof Attachment for themass of fiveaggregates.100 How Craving ResultsIn(Future) Misery? The Four Ways in which Suffering is inflicted. Theof Suffering (Dukkha Nirodharya Satya) Nirvana The Two Types. of Happiness Thesupremacy of Nirvana The Scope of Nirvana HowReachNirvana? The two Aspects (f.arms)of Nirvana Nirvana and Being The Four Qualities of Nirvana TheLeadingthe Cessation of Suffering. (The Noble Eightfold Path) The Noble EightPath (in detail) Fourfold Right Understanding HowtheEight FactorsAreAssessed Into khandas(skandhas)? Howthe Supramundane path can be Reached? The Four Qualitiesthe Noble Eightfold path. Different waysof Expre:..,,:ngthe Truths. The True Fourfold Functions toExecuted 107 116 126 128 129 132 133 134 136 136 137 142 149 160 176 177 179 184 187 About the Author Ven.Prof.RerukaneChadawimala Mahanayaka Thera (PravachanaVisharadha;Pundit:DharmasastraShiromanl) was a mighty, brilliantBuddhist monk whorepresented(theravada),well known for his acutety, rational thinking and cogent, luciddiscourses.Ven. Maha Thera,agreatover twentyfive books coveringPhilosophy ranging fromAbidhamma,otherBuddhist doctrinologicalaspects in .the Sinhala language.Most ofthe Ven.Mahathera'sbooks,thoughappealingtolaymenand scholars alike, in order to make full use of his Abidhanlma and meditationtreatisesonemusthavesomepriorgroundingin Buddhist philosophical principles. Born on1897 July19 to a devout Buddhist family in the village of Rerukana,Rubal Gunawardena. HisFatherbeingGunawardenaand mother - Munasignwastheeldestinthe family of one youngeryounger brothers.After havingstudiedinVeediyawatteuptothe secondstandard,thecommunityof Buddhist monks,yearsof age,after concedingtoamerecasualrequestbyhisfather.hewas ordainedasamonkonJanuary8th1906alollgwithtwenty seven others,of Whichgrouphewastheyoungestunderthe VIlI then chief incumbent of the Vinayalankaramaya at Pokunuvita, a Buddhist monk from Burma. Later,hewassenttoBurmaforBuddhiststudiesand subsequent higher ordination;wherein he distinguishedhim-self inAbidhamma philosophy in particular and Buddhism in General.So also, the Mahanayaka thera acquired proficiency in Pali, SanskritandBurmeselanguages.Aftertenyearsof intense activityinthefieldof Buddhism? hereturnedtoSri Lanka and initially lived the life of a Buddhist monk beforetheVen.MahaTherafinaUysettledhimselfat Vinayalankaramaya temple inPokunuvita, Horana. Vinayalankaramaya becamethecentre'activity,fromwherehewrotebooksinlucidlanguageto edifyBuddhistsandtoclarifycertainabstrusepointsof Buddhistphilosophy,thuss.ettinginmotionamighty Buddhistwheelinmotionwith relentless,indefatigablezeal andeffort,withcourageandenthusiasmthat spurredmany.a Buddhist heart into practically following the path of Buddhist wisdom.Aproductiveandaprolificwriter,theVen.Maha Thera dispensed eternCl.ltruths of Buddhist wisdom with ease and intellectual taste.Herein, one particular point needstobe emphasized.Ven. Theradidnotmerelytransliterated from the Pali cannon, but wrote from empirical experieces he acquiredfrom Samatha and Vidarshana meditation simultane-ously quoting the most relevant passages of the Dhamma from canonical texts. Ven.Maha Thera'srationalitywasimpeccableandhis bookswere praised and hailed by Buddhist scholars andordi-nary people interested inDhamma, far and near, as immaculate expressions of Buddhist themes, veryorthodox and only little opento question. ix Yen.KirioruweDhammananda,whosegurutheYen. Maha Thera was for long continuous years, who associated the Yen. Maha Thera upuntiltheYen. Maha Thera's last breath quite rightly believes the Yen. Maha Thera to be an Arhat. Yen. Maha Thera attained tothesupreme consummationon1996 April eleventh. Viranjeewa Weerakkody,ina splendidtranslationhas opened the door that gives English readers all the world over of tasting the flavour of one of the most painstakingly, ardently and, above all, very accurately and profoundly written books-The Four Noble Truths of the Yen. Maha Thera. May aU-who read this treatise imbibe the quintessense of Buddhism, The Four NobleTruths which is what we particu-larly term as the philosophy of Buddhism or the Buddhist way of life and attain the supreme beatitude of Nirvana!! x Preface With regardtotheandinhabitworld andother objects intheworld,ordinarypeoplehave,byand large, a wrong understanding. They (ordinary people:' consider (takeforgranted)asuccessionof eventsasarigidmaterial substance,minutespecksof matterashugematerialobjects, conglomerationstiny elements devoidany personality persons andanimals with personalities,what is ephemeral as permanent, what isloathsome asattractive,suffering ascom-causeof sufferingthecauseofhappiness,thetnJe happinessandthe wayleadingtheretoasbeing smartingand acrimonious andthehasbeen grosslylated.All these the Exalted One (Buddha) proclaimed asthey reallyare.Thenatureof theworld(universe)asseenbythe Exaltedistermed "Aryasatya" (noble truth). For the one who has wrongly understood the nature of the world,firmlyattachedthewrong notionsregarding world which he harbours in his mind, thinking in those misdi-rected lines of thought and therein acting derived out of those pseudocurrentsthought thelaidbyexalted one would be discerned asfalse.Therefore for those of such a mentalconstitutiongraspingprofounddoctrineofthefour Noblebeindeed.Theultimateessence .Buddhism isthe Four Noble Truths.So,in order tobe a real Buddhistfair knowledge of theNoble Truthsrequired. Of those livingtodayneither layBuddhists nor a majorityof Xl priestshaveat leasta silhouette type knowledge of thenoble truths,* The Four Noble Tnlthscannotby oneself reqmresof a learnedAt least, adiscern thetoa certainthere must well - written books in lucid language. As heretofore there has been a great dearth of books of such nature, we, according to the range of our knowledge, with unflinching effort compiled this workbenefitin ordermaybe able tosome considerable portion of theof noble Amongthecommentarialliterature,along,detailed discussionoftheFNTsisgivenin"Sammohavinodani"of VihhangaprakaranaVisudhimarga.people lack-mgknowledgeoflanguagenouse them,with theofPali, itonerous task read and comprehend them.The FNTs are expatiated in these booksforthosewhoarealreadyfamiliarwith"paramatta Dhamma Vibhaga" (analysis of the ultimate elements of being) foundDhammasangani Prakarana.the know l-andnoacquaintance"paramatta peoplewhothattheyreality by reading only delude themselves. And this delusion is worse thannotknowing.Nowadaysthereisaplethoraof people whoaredeludedbyreadingcanonicaltextsjustwiththe of Pali. intention wascompile a bookwho lack the knowledge ofPali and paramatta dhamma in order that they acquire,atleast toa certainextent,apure knowledgeof the * np,'jc"t'II,rjenable him enlightenment exemptionto understand the wheretheparamis the instance xii quintessenceof Buddhism.Thereforewehavedeviatedto anotherwayfromthewayinwhichtheFNTshavebeen explainedintheorthodoxreligioustreatisesas Sammohavinodani. When compiling this treatise, we have kept in mind at each point "how should the point beexplained so that thereadereasilygraspsit?"andputitinthebestwaywe thought of. Booksofprofoundphilosophycanbecompiledbut easilyandeffortlesslyinawaywhichconfersmeaningand intellectualsatisfactionjustasitisinthecaseofanovel bringing out meaningandentertainment.Wherefore without expectingtocapturethemeaningof profoundphilosophies bysheel,"skillof theoratorsandwriters,readershouldexert special effort to discern by himself.Those who are desirous of accurately knowing the FNTs shouldnotattempt reading this like a novel once or twice but read and reread again and again. By remembering the contents ofllie book, one should reminiesce and think again and again.If thus followed,anybody with the know ledge of Sinhala can afford to have a fair knowledge of the FNTs


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