the first noble truth: dukkha four noble truths. the foundation of buddhism the four noble truths...
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THE FIRST NOBLE TRUTH: DUKKHAFour Noble Truths
The Foundation of BuddhismThe four noble truths are considered as the foundation of the Buddhas teaching.
The first sermon of the Buddha presents a brief account of them.The Buddha expounded this sermon to five ascetics at Isipatana in Benares.Four noble truths: expound:Account: ascetics:
The four noble truths are:1. Dukkha (suffering/conflict)
2. Samudaya (arising or origin of dukkha)
3. Nirodha (the cessation of dukkha)
4. Magga (the way/path leading to the cessation of dukkha)
translations and interpretationSuffering : is not a correct translation for dukkha Interpretation: life according to Buddhism is nothing but suffering and painThis is a misleading interpretation. Interpretation: Misleading:
Is Buddhism pessimistic?Buddhism is neither pessimistic nor optimistic.It is realistic.It does not lull you into a fools paradiseIt does not frighten and agonize with imaginary fears and sins.Pessimistic optimistic-Realistic- lull-Frighten agonize
It is a way to reality of life and to tranquility and happiness.The figure of physician i. pessimistic exaggerate ii. optimistic- false consolation-iii. Realistic- diagnoses symptoms correct understand cause and nature of illness, sees can be cured, administers course of treatment (bhaisajya-guru)Diagnose: symptoms
Dukkha represents the world view of the Buddha.
In addition to the basic meaning of suffering, it includes the meanings of impermanence, emptiness , insubstantiality.
Happiness is not denied by Buddhism. There are different types of happiness: spiritual-material happiness of family life happiness of recluse happiness of attachment happiness of detachment etc.But all these included in dukkha.Detachment-
Jhana/dhyana is also sufferingHigher spiritual states such as dhyana (trance) , which are only pure equanimity and awareness counted as dukkha.The reason is that these are subject to impermanence, dukkha and change(anicca dukkha viparinamadhamma). Spiritual states- trance- equanimity- awareness-
Three aspects of sense-pleasureConcerning sensual pleasures, one has to understand three things: i. Attraction or enjoyment (assada) ii. Evil consequence (adinava) iii. Freedom or liberation (nissarrana) (Mahadukkhakkhandha sutta)
Sensual pleasures enjoyment-Consequence liberation-
Enjoyment and unsatisfaction with enjoyable object both are facts of experience.
Detachment from the sensual object is freedom or liberation (nissarana). To see things in these three aspects, neither is pessimism nor optimism.Understanding things from this point of view is the way to see life completely and objectively.Objectively-
Without understanding three aspects of sense pleasure, it is not possible for him to understand desire for sense pleasures, to a make person understand the desire for sense-pleasuresthe instructed persons understanding it.
Three aspects of dukkha i. ordinary suffering (dukkha-dukkha)
ii. Suffering of change (viparinama dukka)
iii. Suffering as conditioned states (samkhara-dukkha) (Visuddhimagga)
i. Ordinary dukkhaWhat is experienced in life likebirth Old ageSicknessDeathAssociation with unpleasant persons and conditionsSeparation from the beloved Not getting what one desiresThis type mental physical suffering accepted universally as suffering and pain.
ii. Suffering of changeThe vicissitude of suffering due to change of pleasant situations is called suffering of change(viparinama-dukkha)
iii. Suffering as conditioned statesThis concept is involved in the ideas of a being, individual, or as I.
According to Buddhist philosophy, individual or I is only a combination of ever-changing physical and mental forces or energies.They are divided into five groups or aggregates (pancakkhandha).Aggregate- combination-Involve-
In short, five aggregates of attachment are dukkhaWhat is dukkha? It is the five aggregates of attachment.Five aggregates and dukkha are not two different things; these five themselves are dukkha. five aggregates-