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THE CHRONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EXPANSION OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONSIN NIGERIA

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THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY (MPA 813) ASSIGNMENT ON THE CHRONOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EXPANSION OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA

SUBMITTED TO DR. DICKSON ORIAKHI DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF BENIN BENIN CITY

BY

GROUP A MPA 1 2007 / 2008 SESSION

2 INTRODUCTION Nigeria is a federation of 36 States and a Federal Capital Territory (FCT). Each State is made up of a number of Local Government Areas (LGAs), decided by its population and other considerations. The constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria defines for each of the three tiers of government, Federal, State and Local Government, a set of functions and services; it is expected to perform with respect to governance. But the constitution also identified a number of services it describes as concurrent as opposed to exclusive list for federal and state governments respectively. Education is one of those services on the concurrent list. Education is central to development. It empowers people and strengthens nations. It is a powerful equalizer, opening doors to all to lift themselves out of poverty. It is critical to the worlds attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Two of the eight MDGs pertain to educationnamely, universal primary completion and gender parity in primary and secondary schooling. Moreover, educationespecially girls educationhas a direct and proven impact on the goals related to child and reproductive health and environmental sustainability. Education also promotes economic growth, national productivity and innovation, and values of democracy and social cohesion. Investment in education benefits the individual, society, and the world as a whole. Broad-based education of good quality is among the most powerful instruments known to reduce poverty and inequality. With proven benefits for personal health, it also strengthens nations economic health by laying the foundation for sustained economic growth. For individuals and nations, it is key to

3 creating, applying, and spreading knowledgeand thus to the development of dynamic, globally competitive economies. It is also fundamental for the construction of democratic societies. Knowledge and advanced skills are critical determinants of a country's economic growth and standard of living as learning outcomes are transformed into goods and services, greater institutional capacity, a more effective public sector, a stronger civil society, and a better investment climate. Good quality, merit-based, equitable, efficient tertiary education and research are essential parts of this transformation. Both developing and industrial countries benefit from the dynamic of the knowledge economy. The capacity for countries to adopt, disseminate, and maximize rapid technological advances is dependent on adequate systems of tertiary education. Improved and accessible tertiary education and effective national innovations systems can help a developing country progress toward sustainable achievements in the Millennium

Development Goals, particularly those goals which relates to all levels of education, health, and gender equity. Tertiary education, is referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, or gymnasium. Colleges, universities, institutes of technology and polytechnics are the main institutions that provide tertiary education (sometimes known collectively as tertiary institutions). Tertiary education generally culminates in the

4 receipt of certificates, diplomas, or academic degrees emanating from rigorous training and impact of knowledge in the respective discipline. Tertiary Education encompasses all organized learning activities at the tertiary level. The National Policy on Education (1998) defines Tertiary Education to include the universities, polytechnic, monotechnics and colleges of education in Nigeria Higher Education. OBJECTIVE OF TERTIARY EDUCATION The goals of tertiary education, as specified in the National Policy (2004 edition) are: i) To contribute to national development through high-level relevant manpower training; ii) iii) To develop and inculcate proper values for the survival of society. To develop the intellectual capability for individuals to understand and appreciate their local and external environments, iv) To acquire both physical and intellectual skills which will enable individuals to be self-reliant and useful members of the society; v) vi) vii) To promote and encourage scholarship and community services; To forge and cement national unity; and To promote national and international understanding and institutions.

These are in consonance with those envisioned by the World Declaration on Higher Education at the World Conference on Higher Education held in Paris, 5-9 October 1998. The Conference re-affirmed that education is a fundamental pillar of human rights, democracy, sustainable development and peace. It should therefore be accessible to all throughout life and that measures are required to

5 ensure co-operation across and between the various sectors, particularly between general, technical and professional, secondary and post-secondary education as well as between universities and other institutions of higher education. TYPES OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA In Nigeria, higher education is available in four main types of institutions The universities (Federal, State and Private) , of which there were 95 as at the year 2008; Polytechnics, originally intended for middle and high level

technical/professional education. Colleges of Education, intended for high-level non-graduate teacher education, but some of which have since become degree-granting institutions, with emphasis on bachelors degrees in Education; Monotechnics: higher institutions that offer courses in specific professional areas: Nursing, Agriculture, Veterinary Studies, etc. EVOLUTION OF INSTITUTION FOR HIGHER LEARNING IN NIGERIA The first institution for higher education in Nigeria was Yaba College of Technology, established in 1934. This became the nucleus of the first University College, established in Ibadan in 1948. The attainment of political independence in 1960 was accompanied by expansion in the education sector in general, and in higher education in particular. There was an improved geographical spread of universities: University of Nigeria, Nsukka (1960), Ahamdu Bello University, Zaria, University of Lagos, and the University of Ife (all in 1962), and much later, the University of Benin (1970).

6 These institutions are now collectively known as FIRST GENERATION UNIVERSITIES. The year 1975 (seven universities were created) witnessed the emergence of Nigerias second-generation universities. Most of these Institutions had begun as satellite campuses of existing universities: Kano, Jos, Maiduguri, Calabar, Port Harcourt, and Ilorin. More universities were to follow in subsequent years, with boom period in the 1980s. The 1990-decade witnessed the birth of private universities. This phenomenon has helped to broaden the scope of ownership of universities into Federal, State, and Private. The post-1970 institutions are now collectively called the third generation universities. One notable feature of the development of universities in Nigeria is the emergence of specialized universities. Most of these focus on Science and Technology, while there are three (Makurdi, Abeokuta, and Umudike) that focus on Agriculture. List of Approved Federal Universities in NigeriaS/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 FEDERAL UNIVERSITIES Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Bayero University,Kano Fed. Univ. of Petroleum Resources, Effurun Federal University of Technology Yola. Federal University of Technology, Akure Federal University of VICE CHANCELLOR Prof. G. A. Babaji Prof. Shehu U. Abdullahi WEBSITE ADDRESS YEAR FOUNDED 1988 1962 1975 2007 http://www.futy.edu.ng http://www.futa.edu.ng http://www.futminna.edu.ng 1988 1981 1982

http://www.atbunet.org

http://www.abu.edu.ng http://www.buk.edu.ng, www.buk.edu.org, Prof. Attahiru M. Jega www.buk.edu.net Prof. Babatunde Alabi Prof. Abdullahi Y. Ribadu Prof. Adebisi M. Balogun Prof. Muhammed S.

7Technology, Minna. Audu Federal University of Technology, Owerri Prof. C. O.E. Onwuliri Micheal Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike Prof. Ikenna Onyido National Open University of Prof. Olugbemiro Nigeria, Lagos. Jegede Nigerian Defence Academy,Kaduna Prof. Aliyu Abdullahi Nnamdi Azikiwe Prof. Ilochi Austin University, Awka Okafor Obafemi Awolowo Prof. M. Oladimeji University,Ile-Ife Faborode University of Abuja, Gwagwalada Prof. Nuhu O. Yaqub University of Agriculture, Prof. Oluwafemi O. Abeokuta. Balogun University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Prof. D.V. Uza Prof. E. A. C. University of Benin Nwanze. University of Prof. Bassey O. Calabar Asuquo University of Ibadan Prof. O. A. Bamiro University of Ilorin Prof. Is'haq Oloyede University of Jos Prof. S. G. Tyoden University of Lagos Prof. Tolu Odugbemi Prof. M. M. Daura Prof. C. O. Nebo

8

http://www.futo.edu.ng, http://www.futoeduportal.com http://www.mouaportal.com, http://mouau.edu.ng

1980

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

1992 2002 1985 1992 1962 1988 1988 1988 1970 1975 1948 1975 1975 1962 1975 1960 1975 1991 1975

http://www.nou.edu.ng www.nigeriandefenceacademy.edu.ng http://www.unizik.edu.ng http://www.oauife.edu.ng http://www.uniabuja.edu.ng

http://www.unaab.edu.ng http://uam.mycportal.com http://www.uniben.edu.ng http://www.unical.edu.ng http://www.ui.edu.ng http://www.unilorin.edu.ng http://www.unijos.edu.ng http://www.unilag.edu.ng http://www.unimaidportal.net, http://www.unimaid.edu.ng, http://www.

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