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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHIES General Editor: Karl H. Potter The following volumes are published: I. Bibliography. Sections I and II, 3rd ed. (1995) II. Indian Metaphysics and Epistemology: The Tradition of Nyya-Vaiesika up to Gagea (1977) III. Advaita Vednta up to amkara and His Pupils (1981) IV. Smkhya: A Dualist Tradition in Indian Philosophy (1987) V. The Philosophy of the Grammarians (1990) VI. Indian Philosophical Analysis: Nyya-Vaiesika from Gagea to Raghuntha iromani (1993) VII. Abhidharma Buddhism to 150 A.D. (1996)

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHIESVOLUME VDI

Buddhist Phosophy from 100 to 350 A.D.

EDITED BY

KARL H. POTTER

MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PRIVATE LIMITED DELHI

First Edition: Delhi, 1999

MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PRIVATE LIMITED All Rights Reserved

ISBN: 81-2O8-1553-X

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PRINTED IN INDIA BY JAINENDRA PRAKASH JAIN AT SHRI JAINENDRA PRESS, A-45 NARAINA. PHASE I, NEW DELHI 110 028 AND PUBLISHED BV NARENDRA PRAKASH JAIN FOR MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PRIVATE LIMITED, BUNGALOW ROAD, DELHI 110 007

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Contributors: Stefan Anacker Kamaleshwar Bhattacharya Bhadanta Santi Bhiksu Robert Buswell, Jr. Edward Conze Collett Cox Peter Delia Santina Bart Dessein Nalinaksha Dutt Paul Griffiths Paul Harrison Megumu Honda Charles W. Huntington, Jr. Leslie S. Kawamura John P, Keenan Jan Hendrik Kern Karen Lang Christian Lindtner Rajendralal Mitra Robert F. Olson Paul Pelliot Karl H. Potter ConstanrJn Regamey David Seyfort Ruegg N. H. Samtani Lambert Schmithausen Nancy Schuster George Teschner K. Timura A. K. Warder Alex Wayman Hideko Wayman

CONTENTSPREFACE PART ONE: INTRODUCTION Chapter One: Introduction Ngrjuna and ryadeva The Prajpramit and the Rise of Mahyna Buddhist Schools and Sects Theravda in Sri Lanka The Coming of Yogcra Chapter Two: The Buddhist Picture of Karma The Path Culminating Stages of the Path Revolution at the Basis Chapter Three: Categories of Factors Physical Factors Mental Factors Concomitant Awarenesses Unconditioned Factors PART TWO: SUMMARIES OF WORKS 1.Satparamita (1st cent. A.D.) 2.Bodhisattvapitaka (1st c. A.D.) 3.Triskandhadharmaparyya (1st c. A.D.) 4.Ktyyanvadnastra (1st c. A.D.) 5Astashasrikprajpramitstra (100) (Olson) 6.Ren ben yu sheng jing (100) 7.Yiqie Uu she shou yin jing (100) 79 79 79 79 79 86 87 87 3 11 16 20 28 29 31 35 41 46 49 50 53 62 73 xv

S.Sidijing (100)

9.Ben xiang yi zhi jing (100)

87

viii

CONTENTS

lO.Lou fenbu jing (100) ll.Pufayijing (100) \2.Ba zheng dao jing (100) X3.Da anban shouyijing (100) U.Yin chi ru jing (100) 15.Chanxing faxiang jing (100) 16Ajtaatrukaukrtyavinodanastm (125) 17.Kyapaparivartastra (125) 18Aksobhyavyhastra (125) l.Drumakinnarastra (125) (Harrison) 20.Loknuvartanastra (125) (Harrison) 21.Pratyutpannabuddhasanmukhvasthitastra (125) 22.Dou shajing (125) 23.VVeas/iu.s/n(i wen pusa shu jing (125) 24.rarigamastra (125) (Teschner) 25.Dharmacakrapravartanastra (130) 26Maitreyapariprcchstra (130) 27.Ugra(datta)pariprcchstra (130) (Schuster) 2&.Chengju quangming dingyi jing (140) 29.Larger Sukhvattvyha- or Amitbhavyha-stra (150) 3O.Smaller Sukhvatfvy/iastra (150) 31.Ratnaunasamcayagth (150) 32.Gandavy/iastra (150) 33.Madhyamakakriks (Ngrjuna) (150) (Lindtner) 34.Vigrahavyvaittan (Ngrjuna) (150) (Bhattacharya) 35.nyatsaptati (Ngrjuna) (150) (Delia Santina) 36.Vaidalyaprakamna (Ngrjuna) (150) (Lindtner) 37.Yuktisastik (Ngrjuna) (150) 38.Ratnvat (Ngrjuna) (150) (Lindtner/Potter) 39.Pratttyasamutpdahrdaya (150) (Delia Santina) 4O.Suhjilekha (Ngrjuna) (150) (Delia Santina) 41.Bodhisambhra (Ngrjuna) (150) 42.Vyavahrasiddhi (Ngrjuna) (150) (Lindtner) 43.Mahynavimik (Ngrjuna) (150) (Lindtner) 44.Catuhstava (Ngrjuna) (150) (Lindmer) 45.Samdhirja- or Candrapmdtpa-stra (150)(Mitra/Dutt) 46.Vimalakninirdeastra (160) (Warder) 47.listambastm (170) 4S.Catuhataka (ryadeva) (180) (Lang)

87 87 87 87 88 88 88 88 88 89 90 90 93 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 96 96 96 98 124 133 143 150 153 161 163 177 179 180 181 185 192 194 198

CONTENTS 49.*ataka (ryadeva) (180) (Lang) 50Aksaraataka and Tik (Aryadeva) (Lang) 51.Tathgatotpattisambhavanirdeastra (180) 52Abhidhaimahrdaya (Upanta) (200) 53.atasliasrikprajpramitstia (200) 54.Pacavimatiprajpramitstra (200) 55Astdaashasjikprajpramitstm (200) 56.Sanmukhidhranstra (200) (Anacker) 57.Jinaputrrthasiddhistra (200) 58.Ksemakampariprcchstra (200) SMahlUkaparipnchstra (200) 60.Ngaropamstm (200) 61 .Nandopanandangarjast'a (200) 62.Puspaktadhranstra(200) 63.Tathgatajnwnudr(samdhi)sti'a (200) 64.Vatsastra (250) 65.Tathgatapratibimbapratisthnastm (200) 66.Suratapariprcchstra (200) 67Mahrjakaniskalekha (Mtrceta) (200) (Lindtner) 68.Vamhavarna (Mtrceta) (210) (Lindtner) 69.atapacatka (Mtrceta) (210) (Lindtner) 7O.Viesastava (Udbhatasiddhasvmin) (210) (Lindtner) 71.Prajpramitstotra (Rhulabhadra) (225) (Ruegg) 72.Kumralta (230) TAksayamatinirdeastra (250) (Kawamura) 74Agulmiikstra (250) 75Aokadattavykaranastm (250) 76Aokarjvadnastra (250) 77Astabuddhakastra (250) 78.Bhadrakalpikasamdhistia (250) 79.Bhadramqykamvykaranastra (250) (Regamey) SO.Buddhasamgtistra (250) 81.Candraprabhkumrastra (250) 82.Caturdrakasamdhistra (250) 83.Daabhmikstra (250) 84.Dadigandhakravidhvamsanastra (250) 85.Garbhvakrntinirdeastm (250) 86.Hastikksayastia (250) 87.(Upyakaualya)Jnottwabodhisattvapariprcchstm(250')

ix 215 222 228 228 229 229 229 229 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 231 231 233 234 236 237 237 238 238 238 238 238 238 239 239 239 239 240 240 240 240

X

CONTENTS 240 240 240 240 240 240 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 241 243 243 243 243 243 243 245 245 245 245 245 245 245 245 245 245 245 245 245 245 246 255 255

88.Krunikarjastra (250) S9.Lokanthavykaranastra (250) O.Mahvaipulyamrdharjastra (250) 9\Mahynopadeastra (250) 92.Maitreyaparipi-cchparivaitastra (250) 93.Majuibuddhaksetragunastra (250) 94.Majuvikditastra (250) 95.Majuvikwvanapavartastra (250) 96.Nandapravrajystra (250) 97.Paramrthasamvrtisatyanirdeastra (250) 98.Pravaranasra (2500 99.Ratnacandrapaiip;tchstm (250) lOO.Ratnacdapariprcc/istra (250) lOl.Ratnq/aipan'prcc/idsfra (250) lO2.Ratnakarandastra (250) 103.Saddhaimapundakastra (250) (Kern) 104.SgamngaraparipKchstra (250) lOS.Samanfamufcftaparivartasrra (250) Wb.Sarvapunyasamuccayasamdhistra (250) 107.Sa;vavaipu(yavidysidd/!ast7Q (250) 108.Simhapariprcchstra (250) W9.mladevsimhandastra (250) (A. and H. Wayman) llO.mabadhamaniparipj'cchstra (250) 111.Sttvivaityavykaranastra (250) 112.Sumatidrikapariprcchstra (250) 113.Susthitamatidevaptrapariprcchstra (250) \\4.Svapnanirdeastra (250) 115.Tathgatacintyaguhyanirdeastra (250) ll.Xat/igatagarbftastra (250) 117'.Udayanavatsarjapariprcchstm (250) 118.Upyakaualyastra (250) 119.Vaiduryar;astra (250) 12Q.Vidyutprptapariprcchstra (250) l21.Viradatta(grhapati)pariprcchstra (250) 122.Vima(adattapariprcch (250) 123.Viesacint(brahma)paripii:chstra (250) 124.VimutHmagga (250) (Potter) 12SAtntikastra ("250) U.Tattvasiddhi (Harivarman) (253) (Porter)

CONTENTS

xi

127.SubhuparipKchstra (260) 312 128.ukastra (260) 312 129Sumantabhqdrabodhisattvadhayacaydharmastra (260) 312 13O.Bhaisajyaguruvaidryaprabhasyaprvapranidhnaviesavistarastra (280) 312 131.Mahynbhidharmastra (300) (Dutt) 313 132.Buddhabhmistra (300) (Keenan) 313 133.Samyuktbhidharmastra (Dharmatrta) (300) (Dessein) 314 134.Pacavastukvibhs (Dhannatrta) (300) (Lindtner) 319 \35 Arthavinicayastra (300) (Samtani) 321 136.Samdhinirmocanastra (325) 323 137.Madhyamakakrik-Akutobhay (Pigala) (325) 329 13$.Lafikvatrastra (325) 332 139.Nirqyastra (340) 346 140.Ekottargamastra (345) 346 141.Bodhisattvaprvcryastra (350) 346 \42.BuddhapitakaduhiUanirgmhastra (350) 346 143.Candragwbhastra (350) 346 144.Dhram(vara)rjastra (350) 346 145.Gayrsastra (350) 346 146.Kualamlasamparigrhastra (350) 346 147.Mahm the textual history of the work see f Hirakawa, op. cit., pp. 282-286. For an exhaustive re'sume' of the literature on this work one should consult Nakamura, op. cit., pp. 183-188. Portions of the work are translated in a variety of collections; see Bibliography, Third Edition 1995, #103 for these and for references to secondary materials. 295. Translated into Chinese by Dharmaraksa (300) in T. 598. Other translations into Chinese (T. 599, T. 601) and into Tibetan (Toh. 153-155). Chapter 14 is translated in Diana Paul, Women in Buddhism (Berkeley 1979). pp. 235-298. 296. #10 of the Ratnakta collection. Translated into Chinese by Dharmaraksa in 200 (T. 315). Also translated into Tibetan (Toh. 54). Translated into English in Chang, Treasury, pp. 134-147. 297. Translated into Chinese as T. 381 by Dharmaraksa (300). 298. Translated into Chinese as T. 274 by Dharmaraksa (300). 299. Chinese translations are T. 310 (37) and T. 343-344. Tibetan translation, Toh. 47. 300. This is #48 of the Ratnakta collection. According to Alex and Hideko Wayman, The Lion's Roar of Queen rml (New York 1974), p. 5, where the work is translated, it was composed in the ndhra region in the thirdVolume One of the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies (ed. K.H. Potter),

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ENCYCLOPEDIA OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHIES

century. Only a few sentences have survived in Sanskrit. The earliest Chinese translation appears to be by Dharmaksema around 420. This surra, however, is obviously known to the author of the Lakvatrastm, who seems to have lived during the fourth century. The present summary by the Waymans is taken from their translation, pp. 21-23. Alex Wayman, 'The Mahsmghika and the Tath

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