emotional intelligence (ei/eq)

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It is useful and interesting to consider how important it is for effective performance at work. There is a considerable body of research suggesting that a persons ability to perceive, identify and manage emotion provides the basis for the kinds of social and emotional competencies that are important for success in almost any job. Furthermore, as the pace of change increases and the world of work make ever greater demands on a persons cognitive, emotional, and physical resources, this particular set of abilities will become increasingly important.

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Emotional Intelligence (EI/EQ)

Name : M.Saad Siddiqui Roll No: 06-0110 Section: X

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Date: 20th November 2008

Contents

Introduction...................................................................................................5 Background....................................................................................................6 Defining Emotional Intelligence (EI).................................................................7 1. The ability-based model..............................................................................7 Measurement of the ability-based model..........................................................8 2. Mixed models of EI.....................................................................................9 (i) The Emotional Competencies (Goleman) model............................................9 Measurement of the Emotional Competencies (Goleman) model........................10 (ii) The Bar-On model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI)..............................10 Measurement of the ESI Model........................................................................10 3. The Trait EI model......................................................................................11 Measurement of the Trait EI model..................................................................12 Conclusion.....................................................................................................14 Further Research............................................................................................15 References.....................................................................................................152

Bibliography...................................................................................................15

AcknowledgementsThanks to my colleagues at FAST University for giving ideas and offering valuable advice. And thanks to Miss. Sultana, teacher of psychology, for advice and help in getting started on the report. M.Saad Siddiqui S110.06

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AbstractIt is useful and interesting to consider how important it is for effective performance at work. There is a considerable body of research suggesting that a persons ability to perceive, identify and manage emotion provides the basis for the kinds of social and emotional competencies that are important for success in almost any job. Furthermore, as the pace of change increases and the world of work make ever greater demands on a persons cognitive, emotional, and physical resources, this particular set of abilities will become increasingly important.

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IntroductionIt turns out that a scientist can see the future by watching four-yearolds interact with a flower. The researcher invites the children, one by one, into a plain room and begins the gentle torment. You can have this flower right now, he says. But if you wait while I run an errand, you can have two flowers when I get back. And then he leaves. Some children grab for the treat the minute he's out the door. Some last a few minutes before they give in. But others are determined to wait. They cover their eyes, they put their heads down, they sing to themselves, they try to play games or even fall asleep. When the researcher returns, he gives these children their hard-earned flowers. And then, science waits for them to grow up. By the time the children reach high school, something remarkable has happened. A survey of the children's parents and teachers found that those who as four-year-olds had the fortitude to hold out for the second flower generally grew up to be better adjusted, more popular, adventurous, confident and dependable teenagers. The children who gave in to temptation early on were more likely to be lonely, easily frustrated and stubborn. They buckled under stress and shied away from challenges. When we think of brilliance we see Einstein, deep-eyed, woolly haired, a thinking machine with skin and mismatched socks. High achievers, we imagine, were wired for greatness from birth. But then you have to wonder why, over time, natural talent seems to ignite in some people and dim in others. This is where the marshmallows come in. It seems that the ability to delay gratification is a master skill, a triumph of the reasoning brain over the impulsive one. It is a sign, in short of emotional intelligence. And it doesn't show up on an IQ test.

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For most of this century, scientists have worshipped the hardware of the brain and the software of the mind; the messy powers of the heart were left to the poets. But cognitive theory could simply not explain the questions we wonder about most: why some people just seem to have a gift for living well; why the smartest kid in the class will probably not end up the richest; why we like some people virtually on sight and distrust others; why some people remain buoyant in the face of troubles that would sink a less resilient soul. What qualities of the mind or spirit, in short determine who succeeds? Emotional Intelligence (EI) often measured as an Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EQ) describes ability, capacity, skill or a self-perceived ability, to identify, assess, and manage the emotions of one's self, of others, and of groups. It is a relatively new area of psychological research and its definition is constantly changing.

BackgroundThe most distant roots of Emotional intelligence can be traced back to Darwins early work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and second adaptation. In the 1900s, even though traditional definitions of intelligence emphasized cognitive aspects such as memory and problemsolving, several influential researchers in the intelligence field of study had begun to recognize the importance of the non-cognitive aspects. For instance, as early as 1920, E. L. Thorndike used the term social intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people. Similarly, in 1940 David Wechsler described the influence of nonintellective factors on intelligent behaviour, and further argued that our models of intelligence would not be complete until we can adequately describe these factors. In 1983, Howard Gardner's Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences introduced the idea of Multiple Intelligences which included both Interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people) and Intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings, fears and motivations). In Gardner's view, traditional types of intelligence, such as IQ, fail to fully explain cognitive ability. Thus, even though the names given to the concept varied, there was a common belief that traditional definitions of intelligence are lacking in ability to fully explain performance outcomes.

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The first use of the term "Emotional Intelligence" is usually attributed to Wayne Payne's doctoral thesis, A study of emotion: Developing emotional intelligence from 1985. However, prior to this, the term "emotional intelligence" had appeared in Leuner (1966). Greenspan (1989) also put forward an EI model, followed by Salovey and Mayer (1990) and Goleman (1995). As a result of the growing acknowledgement of professionals for the importance and relevance of emotions to work outcomes, the research on the topic continued to gain momentum, but it wasnt until the publication of Daniel Goleman's best seller Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ that the term became widely popularized. Nancy Gibbs' 1995 Time magazine article highlighted Goleman's book and was the first in a string of mainstream media interest in EI. Thereafter, articles on EI began to appear with increasing frequency across a wide range of academic and popular outlets.

Defining Emotional Intelligence (EI)There are a lot of arguments about the definition of EI. One attempt toward a definition was made by Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer (1990) who defined EI as the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one's thinking and actions. Despite this early definition, there has been confusion regarding the exact meaning of this construct. The definitions are so varied, and the field is growing so rapidly, that researchers are constantly amending even their own definitions of the construct. Up to the present day, there are three main models of EI: 1.Ability-based EI models 2.Mixed models of EI 3.Trait EI model 1. The ability-based model

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Salovey and Mayer's conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines of the standard criteria for a new intelligence. Following their continuing research, their initial definition of EI was revised to: "The ability to perceive emotion, integrate emotion to facilitate thought, understand emotions and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth." The ability based model views emotions as useful sources of information that help one to make sense of and navigate the social environment. The model proposes that individuals vary in their ability to process information of an emotional nature and in their ability to relate emotional processing to a wider cognition. This ability is seen to manifest itself in certain adaptive behaviours. The model proposes that EI includes 4 types of abilities:1.Perceiving emotions the ability to detect and decipher emotions

in faces, pictures, voices, and cultural artefacts- including the ability to identify ones own emotions. Perceiving emotions represents a basic aspect of emotional intelligence, as it makes all other processing of emotional information possible.2.Using emotions the ability to harness emotions to facilitate

various cognitive activities, such as thinking and problem solving. The emotionally intelligent person ca

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