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  • Designing theiPhone User Experience

    A User-Centered Approachto Sketching and Prototyping iPhone Apps

    SUZANNE GINSBURG

    _"Addison-Wesley

    Upper Saddle River, NJ Boston. Indianapolis. San FranciscoNew York. Toronto. Montreal_ London. Munich. Paris. Madrid

    Capetown. Sydney. Tokyo. Singapore. Mexico City

  • Designing theiPhone User Experience

    A User-Centered Approachto Sketching and Prototyping iPhone Apps

    SUZANNE GINSBURG

    Addison-Wesley

    Upper Saddle River. NT Boston. Indianapolis. San FranciscoNew York. Toronto. Montreal. London. Munich. Paris. Madrid

    Capetown. Sydney. Tokyo. Singapore. Mexico City

  • PART ONE: iPhone Application and Device Overview .

    Contents

    Preface ............................................................. xv

    We'd like to Hear from You . xxvii

    Acknowledgments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. xxix

    Aboutthe Author. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . xxxi

    CONTENTS vii

    . 19Chapter 2: iPhone Device Overview .

    Reviewing the iPhone and iPod Touch's Features ....................... 20Multi-Touch Display.. . . 21

    Supported Gestures. . .......................................... 22Custom Gestures ................................................ 22Keyboard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    Light, Proximity, and Motion Sensors ................................. 27

    Ambient Light Sensor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 27Proximity Sensor. . ...................................... 27

    Motion Sensor .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    Location and Compass Information. . . . 29Location Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . ......................... 29Compass. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .......................... 29

    Chapter 1: iPhone Application Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    Utility Apps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . 4Minimal Setup ................................................... 4

    Simple Layouts and Flows ...................... . ........... 5Standard User Interface Elements .................................. 5Utility App Tour ................................................. 5

    Productivity Apps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Hierarchical Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . ......................... 7

    Accelerators and Shortcuts ........................................ 8Productivity App Tour ........................................... 9

    Immersive Applications. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . 12Focus on the Content . . . . . . . . . 13Customized User Experience .................... 14Immersive App Tour. . . . . . . . . . . . . ........... 14

    Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. 17

  • --- ----------- -

    Bluetooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Still and Video Cameras. . . .. . . . . . .. ... . . . .. .. . . . . .. 31

    Image Capture. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . 31Image Enhancement. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . ... . 32Image Recognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... 33

    Microphone and Speaker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... 33Summary. . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . .. ................ . 35

    PART TWO: Defining Your iPhone App 37

    Chapter 3: Introduction to User Research . . . . . . . . .. 39

    viii

    Common User Research Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 40What Willi Learn? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 40How Is Up-front User Research Different from Usability Research? 42How Much Is This Going to Cost Me? 42Two Weeks Is Still Too Long; What Are My Alternatives? 42

    Shadowing and User Interviews. . . . . . . . . . . . 43Shadowing . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . 43

    Field Interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 45Interviews with Subject Matter Experts ................... . 45Phone Interviews. . . . . . ................................... 46Street Interviews. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . .. . ... . . . 46Focus Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . 47

    Documenting User Interviews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . 47

    Notes. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 47Still Camera ..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 48Audio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ..................... 48

    Video. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........ 48Diary Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . 49Choosing a Research Method. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

    No Clear App Concept. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 53

    Rough App Concept. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . ... . ... . . .... 54Existing App. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

    Planning Your Research ................ . . . .. . . . . . . 54

    Purpose and Objective 55Study Dales. . ............................................. 56User Profiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............................. 56Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . " 57Questions for Research. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 58Roles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 58Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59Report Contents .............................................. 60

  • Benefits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .......... 94Best Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94What to Avoid.. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . .. . . 94Needs Alignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94Inspiration .......................... . .. . . . . ... . . . .. .. 95

    Apps to Include. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................. 95

    Recruiting ................................................ . . 60Screener. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... ... .. . .. . . .. . .. . ... . .. 61Number of Participants. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 62Compensation. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . 63

    Facilitating Interviews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .............. 63Ask Open-Ended Questions . .. . .. . . . . . . . .. . 64Look for Concrete Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64Probe What's Not There. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65Capture Relevant Artifacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65Wrap-up and Debrief. . . .. . . .... . . . . .. . 66

    Related Research Activities. . . . .. . . ... . . .. .. . . . . 67Summary................. ................... . ... 67

    Chapter 4: Analyzing User Research . .................................. 69

    Share the Wealth.. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ........................ 70Analyze Notes. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . 71

    Handwrillen Notes. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Transcripts. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . 71Verbatim Notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . 72

    Document Implications and Ideas. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . .74Report Findings ....................... . ............... 75

    Methodology and Goals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75Team Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Participant Profiles. . . . . . . . . 76Findings ........................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 76Presenting the Findings. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

    Create Design Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79Personas ...................... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80Scenarios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82User Tourneys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ...................... 85

    Revise the Product Definition Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 86Summary.. . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . 86Case Study l:Windspire 88Case Study 2: Aardvark Mobile. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . 90

    CONTENTS Ix

    93Chapter s: Evaluating the Competition .

  • X CONTENTS

    Methods ...................................................... 95Needs Alignment Charts ....................................... 95Two-by-Two Diagrams .......................................... 97Heuristic Evaluations ........................................... 97Competitive Usability Benchmarking ........................... 102

    Choosing a Method ................................................ 105Impact on the Product Definition Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . 107

    PART THREE: Developing Your App Concept ...................... 109

    Chapter 6: Exploring App Concepts III

    Creating a Design-Friendly Environment ............................ 112Effective Brainstorming .