Data against natural disasters
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- 1. DISASTERS NATURAL DATA ESTABLISHING EFFECTIVE SYSTEMS FOR RELIEF, RECOVERY, AND RECONSTRUCTION Samia Amin and Markus Goldstein, Editors against
2. Data Against Natural Disasters 3. Data Against Natural Disasters Establishing Effective Systems for Relief, Recovery, and Reconstruction EDITED BY Samia Amin Markus Goldstein Washington, DC 4. 2008 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC 20433 Telephone: 202-473-1000 Internet: www.worldbank.org E-mail: email@example.com All rights reserved 1 2 3 4 11 10 09 08 This volume is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. The ndings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this volume do not necessarily reect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. 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All other queries on rights and licenses, including subsidiary rights, should be addressed to the Ofce of the Publisher, The World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA; fax: 202-522-2422; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. ISBN: 978-0-8213-7452-8 eISBN: 978-0-8213-7453-5 DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-7452-8 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Data against natural disasters : establishing effective systems for relief, recovery and recon- struction / [editors Samia Amin, Markus Goldstein]. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-8213-7452-8 ISBN 978-0-8213-7453-5 (electronic) 1. Disaster reliefDeveloping countriesCase studies. 2. Information storage and retrieval systemsNatural disastersCase studies. 3. Emergency managementDeveloping countriesCase studies. I. Amin, Samia, 1980, II. Goldstein, Markus P., 1970. HV555.D44D38 2008 363.3480684dc22 2007051395 Cover design by: Serif Design Group, Inc. 5. Information is not knowledge. Albert Einstein 6. Contents Foreword xi Acknowledgments xiii Contributors xv Abbreviations xix Part One Introduction 1 1 Using Data Against Disasters: Overview and Synthesis of Lessons Learned 1 Samia Amin, Marcus Cox, and Markus Goldstein 2 Information Gaps in Relief, Recovery, and Reconstruction in the Aftermath of Natural Disasters 23 Claude de Ville de Goyet 3 United Nations Efforts to Strengthen Information Management for Disaster Preparedness and Response 59 Brendan McDonald and Patrick Gordon vii 7. Part Two Case Studies 83 4 The Use of a Logistics Support System in Guatemala and Haiti 83 Claude de Ville de Goyet 5 World Bank: Tracking Reconstruction Funds in Indonesia after the 2004 Earthquake and Tsunami 143 Jock McKeon 6 The Flow of Information during Disaster Response: The Case of the Mozambique Floods, 2007 185 Marcin Sasin 7 Data Management Systems after the Earthquake in Pakistan: The Lessons of Risepak 233 Samia Amin 8 Ex Ante Preparedness for Disaster Management: Sahana in Sri Lanka 273 M. A. L. R. Perera Index 299 Box 3.1 The Cluster Approach 62 Figures 2.1 Disaster Losses in the Richest and Poorest Nations, 198599 24 2.2 The Phases of Disaster 28 2.3 The Overlapping Phases in Recent Major Disasters 29 4.1 The Hierarchical Structure of SUMA 94 4.2 The Nonhierarchical Structure of the LSS 95 4.3 The Distribution of Funding by Source, in Haiti, 200407 102 4.4 The National Risk and Disaster Management System 104 4.5 Shares of Donor Funding, in Guatemala, by Donor 122 5.1 Damage and Loss Assessment 145 5.2 Funding Allocations by Contributor Type 147 viii CONTENTS 8. 5.3 Timeline: Post-Tsunami Events and the Output of the Financial Tracking System 150 5.4 Overview of the Financial Tracking System 152 5.5 BRR Project Planning, Approval, and Implementation Processes 163 5.6 Funding Flows across Actors in Reconstruction 164 5.7 Examples of Key Outputs 168 5.8 Creating Damage and Loss Assessments for Reconstruction Planning 178 5.9 Funding Flows Required for Data Analysis 180 6.1 Water Flows at Cahora Bassa Dam, 2001 and 2007 207 7.1 Reconstruction Costs by Sector, Estimates, November 2005 234 Tables 1.1 The Phases of Disaster 3 2.1 Distribution of Natural Disasters by Origin, 19702005 25 2.2 Disasters Receiving over 10 Percent of Annual International Humanitarian Funding 27 2.3 Relief Activities Following an Earthquake 35 2.4 Selected Indicators of Recovery and Reconstruction, by Area of Recovery 49 3.1 Minimum Common Operational Data Sets 75 3.2 Optional Common Operational Data Sets 75 4.1 Approximate Cost of SUMA in the Americas 85 4.2 Main Steps in the Development of the LSS 87 4.3 The Implementation of SUMA in the Aftermath of Disasters 89 4.4 The Implementation of the LSS in the Aftermath of Disasters 90 4.5 Human Development Indicators for Angola, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti 98 4.6 Good Governance Indicators for Angola, the Dominican Republic, and Haiti 99 4.7 Summary of Losses Caused by Natural Disasters, in Haiti, 200307 100 4.8 Humanitarian Funding for Haiti, 200407 103 4.9 The Distribution of Roles among Partners, Flash Appeal 2004 107 CONTENTS ix 9. 4.10 The Chronology of SUMA Implementation, 2004 112 4.11 SUMA Training Activities through the DPC 114 4.12 Comparative Strength and Damage of Hurricanes Mitch and Stan 120 4.13 Disaster Impact and Level of Development, Guatemala 121 4.14 National Counterparts and the United Nations Response 123 4.15 Contributions of the United Nations System 126 4.16 Chronology of Events, Hurricane Stan, and Humanitarian Assistance 128 5.1 Bilateral and Multilateral Donors in the Reconstruction Effort 154 5.2 Sector Denitions 156 5.3 Summary of Aceh and Nias Reconstruction Funding Allocations 166 7.1 Baseline Data Collection 251 7.2 Damage and Needs Assessment Indicators 254 7.3 Measures of Assistance and Residual Need 255 8.1 Summary of Natural Disasters in Sri Lanka, 19572007 275 8.2 People Displaced by the Tsunami, Survey Results of March 4, 2005 277 x CONTENTS 10. In recent years, the world has witnessed both massive destruction caused by natural disasters and immense nancial and physical support materi- alizing for the victims of these calamities. Climate change can reasonably be expected to increase countries vulnerability to natural hazards in the future. So that these natural hazards do not become man-made disasters, we require effective systems to identify needs, manage data, and help calibrate responses. Such systems, if well designed, can help coordinate the inux of aid to ensure timely and efcient delivery of assistance to those who need help most. The emphasis on aid effectiveness is particularly important in the context of disaster response because, as is now clear, vulnerability to natural disasters and inefciencies in aid distribution may lead to unneces- sary economic losses, increased suffering, and greater poverty. For those committed to saving lives, ghting poverty, and spurring development, early preparation for effective disaster management is critical. Data Against Natural Disasters makes a valuable contribution to our understanding of the conditions and actions necessary for establishing effective disaster management information systems.The volumes introductory chapters outline the data needs that arise at different stages in disaster response and explore the humanitarian communitys efforts to discover more effective mechanisms.These overviews are preceded by an introduction that summarizes some of the key lessons one may derive from the six country case studies that constitute the rest of the volume. These six case studies examine country-level efforts to establish infor- mation management systems to coordinate disaster response. Not all of xi Foreword 11. the attempts proved successful, but they included important technical and institutional innovations that are worthy of study. Collectively, they yield important lessons both for forward-thinking countries seeking ex ante disaster preparedness and for humanitarian responders hoping to implement good systems quickly after calamities have struck. This volume will, we hope, increase the resilience of poor countries facing the inevitable threat posed by natural hazards. Danny Leipziger John Holmes Vice President and Head of Network Under-Secretary for Humanitarian Poverty Reduction and Economic Affairs and Emergency Relief Management Coordinator World Bank United Nations xii F OREWORD 12. This book has beneted from the guidance of Margaret Arnold, Uwe Deichmann, and Ian ODonnell, who served as peer reviewers. We thank them for their insightful and valuable comments. We also thank Louise Cord for her guidance and Marcin Sasin for his invaluable efforts in dening the work program. We are grateful to Brendan McDonald and Patrick Gordon (United Nations Ofce for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs) for their collaboration with us on this project. The initial design of this study and the identication of case studies beneted tremendously from the comments of a large number of people. We would like to thank, in particular, the following individuals for their input on the topic and the case studies selected for this volume: Margaret Arnold, Jehan Arulpragasam, Piet Buys, Uwe Deichmann, Wolfgang Fengler, Saroj Jha, and David McKenzie (all of the World Bank); Maxx Bonnel and Lynette Larson (United Nations Ofce for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs); Omar Dario Cardona (IDEAS); Caroline Clarke (Inter-American Development Bank); Louise Comfort (University of Pittsburgh); Marcus Cox (Agulhas); Paul Currion (Emergency Capacity Building Project); Claude de Ville de Goyet (International Disaster Preparedness, Inc.); and Max Dilley (United Nations Development Programme). We would also like to thank Robert Zimmermann for his meticu- lous editing of the manuscript, and Stephen McGroarty, Andrs Mene- ses, Nora Ridolfi, and Dina Towbin for their excellent work in producing this volume. Valuable logistics support was provided by Ccile Wodon. xiii Acknowledgments 13. Individual chapter authors have added acknowledgments in their chap- ter notes. Data Against Natural Disasters has been nanced through generous grants from the Global Facility on Disaster Risk Reduction and the Trust Fund for Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development. xiv ACKNOWLED GMENTS 14. Samia Amin worked on impact evaluation and monitoring systems as a junior professional associate at the Poverty Reduction Group at the World Bank in 200608. She received a bachelors degree in political science and French from Middlebury College and a masters degree in public policy from the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. She has worked as a junior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for Inter- national Peace, where she researched issues of nation building and nuclear nonproliferation. Her primary interest is education policies in developing countries as a means of spurring human development. Her recent work includes the book, Are You Being Served? New Tools for Measuring Service Delivery (World Bank 2008). Marcus Cox is a director of Agulhas, a London-based development consul- tancy providing research, analysis, and policy advice for multilateral and bilateral clients. His specializations include aid effectiveness, political econ- omy analysis, fragile states, and the rule of law. He has worked extensively in the Balkans and Southeast Asia. He holds a PhD from Cambridge Uni- versity in post-conict state building and is senior editor at the European Stability Initiative, a nonprot research and policy institute. Claude de Ville de Goyet retired in 2001 as director of the Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Relief Coordination Program of the Pan Amer- ican Health Organization, where he was involved in the development of the logistics support system. He has over 40 years of experience in disaster risk reduction and humanitarian assistance. He is now a senior consultant with xv Contributors 15. bilateral aid organizations and the international community. A medical doctor, he also has a bachelor of science degree in operational research and computer sciences and a postgraduate degree in public health and tropical medicine. He is the author of numerous publications. Markus Goldstein is a senior economist in the Poverty Reduction Group at the World Bank, where he works on poverty analysis, monitoring, and impact evaluation. His recent research involves work on HIV/AIDS, land tenure, poverty measurement, risk, and intrahousehold allocation. He is the author or coauthor of many scholarly articles and books, including the recent books, Beyond the Numbers: Understanding the Institutions for Moni- toring Poverty Reduction Strategies (World Bank 2006) and Are You Being Served? New Tools for Measuring Service Delivery (World Bank 2008). He has taught at the London School of Economics, the University of Ghana, and Georgetown University. Patrick Gordon is a specialist in the development of information platforms to support coordination efforts within host governments and the United Nations during the onset of natural disasters and ongoing complex emer- gencies. He is currently serving as technical coordinator at the United Nations Ofce for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, where he is responsible for leading and managing all technical subprojects. Previously, he was manager at the United Nations Humanitarian Information Centre established in January 2005 in response to the tsunami in Sri Lanka. His work experience covers more than 20 years in communications and infor- mation management in development and in humanitarian and emergency response. Brendan McDonald has been working in humanitarian affairs since 1999. He is currently manager of the Field Information Services Unit, United Nations Ofce for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, New York. The unit seeks to facilitate and promote the use of information to sup- port the provision of humanitarian assistance in complex emergencies and sudden-onset disasters. He has also worked with nongovernmental organizations, including CARE Internation...