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  • This article was downloaded by: [University of Birmingham]On: 20 March 2015, At: 05:52Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House,37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

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    International Journal of Food PropertiesPublication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ljfp20

    Comparative Pharmacognostic Evaluation and HPTLCAnalysis of Petals of Spiny and Non-Spiny SafflowerCultivarsSajeli Begum Ahila, Senthi Mahibalana, Shaik Ameer Bashab, Ramesh Babuc & KatragaddaSuresh Babuca Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science - Pilani HyderabadCampus, Jawahar Nagar, Shamirpet Mandal, Ranga Reddy District, Telangana, Indiab Regional Agricultural Research Station, Achraya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Palem,Mahabub Nagar District, Telangana, Indiac Natural Product Laboratory, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Tarnaka, Uppal Road,Hyderabad, IndiaAccepted author version posted online: 09 Mar 2015.

    To cite this article: Sajeli Begum Ahil, Senthi Mahibalan, Shaik Ameer Basha, Ramesh Babu & Katragadda Suresh Babu(2015): Comparative Pharmacognostic Evaluation and HPTLC Analysis of Petals of Spiny and Non-Spiny Safflower Cultivars,International Journal of Food Properties, DOI: 10.1080/10942912.2014.988722

    To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2014.988722

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    COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION AND HPTLC ANALYSIS OF PETALS OF SPINY AND NON-SPINY SAFFLOWER CULTIVARS Short title: PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND HPTLC STUDIES ON SAFFLOWER PETALS

    Sajeli Begum Ahil1, Senthi Mahibalan1, Shaik Ameer Basha2, Ramesh Babu3 and Katragadda Suresh Babu3

    1Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science - Pilani Hyderabad Campus, Jawahar Nagar, Shamirpet Mandal, Ranga Reddy District, Telangana, India

    2Regional Agricultural Research Station, Achraya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Palem, Mahabub Nagar District, Telangana, India

    3Natural Product Laboratory, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Tarnaka, Uppal Road, Hyderabad, India

    Address correspondence to Sajeli Begum Ahil, Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology and Science - Pilani Hyderabad Campus, Jawahar Nagar, Shamirpet Mandal, Ranga Reddy District-500078, Telangana, India. E-mail: sajeli@hyderabad.bits-pilani.ac.in

    ABSTRACT

    To establish the identity and quality of safflower petals used as herbal tea, four spiny and non-

    spiny cultivars (APRR3, TSF-1, NARI-NH-01 and NARI-06) were analyzed for various

    pharmacognostic characters, toxic metals (As, Pb, Hg, Cr, Cd by atomic absorption

    spectroscopy), pesticide residue (GC-ECD/PFPD) and flavonoid constituents like quercetin,

    quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol by HPTLC.. Arsenic and lead were found to be absent

    in the decoction of all varieties. Although mercury and chromium were detected in standard

    acceptable levels, cadmium was exceeding the limit except in APRR3(0.3 mg/kg). While none of

    the samples contained pesticide residue and saponins, presence of tannins (19 - 25%), bitterness

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    principle (1257 2200 units/g), mucilaginous substances (0.93 2.83 ml/g) and volatile matter

    (4 16%) were observed and estimated in all varieties. Microscopic examination of NARI-06

    and APRR3 petals explored similar features having slightly thick cylindrical style with dense

    spikes and corolla tube with five slightly thick ridges possessing ribbon like outgrowths. HPTLC

    analysis revealed APRR3 to possess higher amount of quercetin (116.6 ng/g), quercetin-3-O-

    rutinoside (189.7 ng/g) and kaempferol (185.07 ng/g). Thus, the spiny APRR3 safflower petals

    encompassing anti-oxidative flavonoids and complying heavy metals test, was identified as a

    safe variety for human consumption.

    Keywords: Carthamus tinctorius, Heavy metals, HPTLC, Flavonoids, APRR3, TSF-1, NARI-

    NH-01, NARI-06.

    INTRODUCTION

    Selectivity of a medicinal plant material is very crucial to attain the prescribed ethno-medicinal

    uses. Consumption of medicinal herbs in the form of tea is becoming a common practice in many

    countries, however much importance is not given to the selectivity of particular species or

    variety and their chemical constituents. Identity of crude herbal drugs can be well established

    through their pharmacognostical and phytochemical characterization. This in turn helps in

    ensuring the purity and quality of crude drug sample. Several herbs are in general use without

    any surefire assertion for quality and identity, raising ambiguity on recommended medical cure.

    One such drug recognized for the study was Carthamus tinctorius (Family: Asteraceae),

    commonly known as Safflower.

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    C. tinctorius is a branching and flowering herbaceous annual plant possessing numerous spines

    on leaves and bracts. It produces several flowering heads commonly called capitula. Each

    capitulum has several flowers ranging from 20-250 interspersed with hairs or bristles. These

    flowers are enclosed by bracts in circular order, attached to a flat or convex receptacle. Each

    flower is composed of petals that are attached to a corolla tube which in turn is attached at its

    base to an inferior ovary. The corolla tube is attached with five fused anthers and surrounded the

    style and stigma. [1] Safflower is a common adulterant for Saffron, detection of which in

    commercial saffron is an important aspect of quality assessment. [2]

    Safflower is mainly grown as an oilseed crop with their flowers used medicinally and dye

    sources as well. Besides its coloring properties, safflower petals are used for curing various

    chronic diseases like hypertension, coronary heart ailments, rheumatism and fertility problems. [3,

    4] In few countries like China, safflower is grown solely for its flowers, which are used in

    treatment of many illnesses in the form of tea. [5] Recent pharmacological studies have proved

    the excitation effects on smooth muscles, contraction effect on blood vessels [6], lowering

    cholesterol levels [7], analgesic [8], anti-inflammatory [9], and antidiabetic effects [10] exhibited by

    safflower flowers. Some of the chemical constituents reported from the flowers of C. tinctorius

    include carthamine, carthamidine, quercetin, kaempferol, safflower yellow, safflamin A,

    safflomin A, carthamosides, flavonoid glycosides, dye, etc. [11]

    The bright yellowish orange petals of safflower are popularly used as herbal tea for the treatment

    of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and gynaecological diseases. [12] Different varieties and

    hybrids of C. tinctorius (Family: Asteraceae) are cultivated throughout the world [5] and are

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    presumed to be same by public, although they differ definitely in quality and chemical

    constituents. Our attempts to corroborate the physico-chemical, histological and secondary

    metabolic variation among four spiny and non-spiny Indian cultivars through various

    quantitative determinations are di

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