colonial north america
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DESCRIPTIONColonial north America. Chapter 3: 1690-1754. Population Growth and Diversity. Population of Colonies grew from 250,000 in 1700 to 1.6 million in 1750 ( Compared to 6.5 million in England in 1750 ) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Colonial north America
Colonial north AmericaChapter 3: 1690-1754Population Growth and DiversityPopulation of Colonies grew from 250,000 in 1700 to 1.6 million in 1750 (Compared to 6.5 million in England in 1750) The economy grew as fast as the population- and mercantilist policy meant a significant percentage of that went to England rather than staying in the colonies- there will begin to be resentment about that.Overall however, most Colonists in the 1st half of the 18th century thought of themselves as Englishmen, and would have told you they had far more in common with their home country than they did with other coloniesNatural IncreaseColonists tended to have large families both out of desire (labor source) and the fact that people tended to marry earlier (econ better) Once the early years had passed, colonial life tended to be healthier than Europe (at least North of Virginia)- so more children survived, and population grew quicklyColonial population doubled every 25 years, and was young- in 1775 the the population was under 16. Largest colonies: Virginia, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania, which also had the largest city: Philadelphia (34,000)Old ImmigrationOur foundation is very English, and even so, had more diversity than any other part of the world at that time. Outside of New England (which is nearly exclusively English/Puritan) of the population is NOT EnglishPopulation Breakdown in 1690:English/Welsh 66%African 20%Scottish 6%Dutch 2%All other Whites .7%Native American (living in/near colonial territory) 6%New ImmigrantsOther than the leftovers of New Netherlands and New Sweden, 90% of the population of the colonies was of British origin before 1690.During 1700s population will begin to shift to non English parts of Great Britain, and other areas within Europe, and of course from Africa (though they werent immigrants)
Scots- IrishDuring English civil war, Cromwell had given land away to the Protestant Scottish, encouraging them to move to Ireland and subdue the native Catholic population. Not really successful or popular move, so many small farmers leave and come to colonies instead. Large groups settled in Pennsylvania, and in the Appalachians (Western Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina)Known for defiant pride in their heritage, and independent thinking (frontier virtues) Not big fans of Native Americans, caused trouble in PA which had been enjoying peaceful native relations
GermansLargest European (not Great Britain) group. Religious conflict still common in many German states, and after more than 200 years, its getting old. Big wave in 1720s, and another between 1749-1756The majority of Germans who came to US were protestants from Southern German states (which stayed Catholic) Actually, significant numbers come from the Anabaptists, the forerunners of todays Amish communities. Settled in many of the same areas as Scots-Irish. Tended to maintain their own language and culture, even after having been in colonies for several generations
Expansion of ColoniesDelawareEst 1703. Had roots in New Sweden, which had been incorporated into New Netherlands, and then a part of Pennsylvania. (majority Quaker)Ties with PA remained strong, shared same governor until Revolution.
North and South CarolinaOriginally one colony- but two distinct econ developed, plantation and small farmer, (slave and not) which led to tension. 1712 North Carolina officially separatedNorth Carolina became known for small farmers (still used slaves, just a small numbers)as well as independent thinking and resistance to authoritySouth Carolina became known for plantations, large numbers of slaves, and an aristocratic mentality.
GeorgiaGeorgia was the last of the original 13 colonies, founded in 1733. Proprietary colony founded by philanthropists James Oglethorpe and John Viscount. Proprietors goal was to provide opportunities for the poor- to open debtors jails and prison ships, moving those unwanted elements to new areas- and offering clean livingKing George II thought that was nice.but was really interested in using the colony as a buffer between South Carolina and New Spain (Florida)Colony grew slowly- hard liquor, slavery, prohibited. Land ownership limited to 500 acres or less (not enough for real plantation). No elected assembly. All these factors discouraged immigration (in relation to other colonies)Gradually, those restrictions were abandoned, and population was growing briskly by French and Indian WarAfricans and the Slave TradeJamestown had slaves as early as 1619, but numbers remained small for years. Bacons rebellion, and rising wages in England (which discouraged the need for indentured servitude) would change that. Somewhere around 10-15 million slaves left Africa between 1500 and 1820 (which is when the slave trade was outlawed) Portuguese were original slave traders (English, French and Dutch will join in 1700s). Didnt generally capture- made arrangements with tribes/societies (Kongo) along the Slave Coast(Senegal-Angola). Slavers who would offer those captured in war, or kidnapped from rival societies in exchange for guns (which gave them great power over other groups) and/or manufactured goodsMost valuable slaves were young men- wanted for their physical strength. Worth up to $1800
The Middle Passage50 million Africans captured/sold into slavery. Used specially built (scientifically designed) ships to transport from Africa to Americas (generally Caribbean 1st stop). Want to have slaves arrive alive (cant sell dead) but still packed in for profit. Death from disease, dysentery common. 20% died on voyageVoyage was 4-10 weeks depending on time of year. Ships build in layers- might only be in an area 2 tall, lay on your back the entire journey. Kept in irons to prevent them jumping overboard (either suicide or at sight of land) and had nets on sides of ships in case they did
DiasporaDiaspora means To disperse or move and entire population. The majority of the slaves who came to the new world were destined for the sugar plantations of either the Caribbean or Brazil- where their life expectancy was very short.In Caribbean, slaves were often the majority of the population, but the bottom of the social hierarchy. Brazil had more freed slaves, and a more blended population (mulattoes etc..) Wherever they went, slave brought their cultural identity with them- which influenced the areas where they ended up.American South is only area where slave population grew from natural increase- and as time went by, our slave trade was primarily internal.
Slave CodesAs slaves grew in number (outnumbering whites) laws passed to ensure control of the population. Blacks and their children are slaves for life- property of master (no legal rights)Crime to make slaves literateConversion to Christianity common, but was not grounds for freedomSlavery was not a new issue- its been around forever, but slavery in Americas was Race based, which changed things, the notion of inferiority based on skin color will be law in this country until the 1960s. Slave CultureMix of African and American folkways.Gullah: language developed in coastal South Carolina- blended English with African languagesMusic: Banjo and Bongo drums imported from Africa. Ringshout tradition contributed to Blues and JazzReligion: developed preference for certain aspects of Christianity- Moses/Exodus, suffering/afterlife etcRebellion- there were over 250 from 1700-1860, slaves were not always docile. Stono Rebellion (1739) the largest and most important
Economic Growth and DevelopmentPopulation growth fueled economic growth. Small scale industry (tools, personal products) grew and made colonies less dependent on Europe for daily goods, but overall pattern of Americas as source for raw materials and European production of finished goods remained constantElite colonists grew richer, and a noticeable gap developed between rich and poor which had not been typical as colonies were founded. Immigrants who arrived later in 1700s found land/opportunities diminished in coastal areas, they had to move further inlandManufacturing not nearly as important as agriculture (in terms of econ) small industry (carpentry, shoemaking)for local consumption- only important large scale industry was Shipbuilding in New England. Travel overland challenging. Most large scale transportation done by water- river/ocean Mercantilism and the Navigation ActsUnlike Sp/Fr, British govt not directly involved in founding of colonies (other than Georgia) but that didnt mean they didnt plan to make $$ from them. Mercantilism: prevailing econ theory of 1600/1700s, said a countrys power came from its gold/silver reserves, and if you dont have treasure, you get the $$ from trade. Colonies existed to create wealth for mother country by making sure European nations could export more than they had to import- providing raw materials and markets for finished goodsNavigation Acts: series of laws passed between 1651-1696 which said American colonies were only to trade with England. Certain products (wool, sugar, tobacco, Indigo, Rice) were Enumerated- could only trade with England. Other products could be sold to other countries, but had to stop in England 1st for tax.Not strictly enforced- and Colonies did receive benefit of military protection etc.. really not a burden until after Fr and Indian War
Molasses ActAs colonial population grew there was increased demand for European goods- and increased American goods available.England is a long way away.there are other Europeans closer- the French, Spanish and Dutch in the Caribbean. Buy molasses, and distill it into Rum.Colonies (esp New England) developed a brisk trade with the French West Indies. 1733 British passed Molasses Act- designed to cut trade in key product. Colonists ignored, and b/c of Salutary Neglect (more about this later) there were no consequences. Taught colo