5: the cultures of colonial north america, 1700-1780
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5: The Cultures of Colonial North America, 1700-1780
"The latent causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man; and we see them everywhere brought into different degrees of activity, according to the different circumstances of civil society." James Madison, Federalist #10
Chapter Review Questions1.What were the principal colonial regions of North America? Discuss their similarities and differences. Contrast the development of their political systems.2.Why did the Spanish and the French close their colonies to immigration? Why did the British open theirs? How do you explain the ethnic homogeneity of New England and the ethnic pluralism of New York and Pennsylvania?3.What were the principal trends in the history of Indian America in the eighteenth century?4.Discuss the development of class differences in the Spanish, French, and British colonies in the eighteenth century.5.Discuss the effects of the Great Awakening on the subsequent history of the British colonies.
Richard Hofstadter, America at 1750: A Social Portrait (1971). A well written description of Americas peoples and regions that suggests that the Great Awakening made a middle-class society even more so.Rhys Isaac, The Transformation of Virginia, 1740-1790 (1982). A magnificent description of the different cultures of Virginias Elite and poor, showing religious revivals changed them forever.Gary B. Nash, The Urban Crucible: Social Change, Political Consciousness, and the Origin of the American Revolution (1979). Detailed, comprehensive, and indispensable for understanding the social and political world of urban workingmen.
BibliographyFrances Caldern de la Barca, Life in Mexico (1843) Bernard Bailyn, The Peopling of British North America: An Introduction (1986) David Hackett Fischer's Albion's Seed (1990) Ben Franklin, The Autobiography and Other Writings (1790) Maynard Geiger, O.F.M., Mission Santa Barbara 1782-1965 (1965) Richard Hofstadter, America at 1750 (1971) [consensus school of history] James Kirby Martin, editor, Interpreting Colonial America (1973) Malachi Martin, The Jesuits: The Society of Jesus and the Betrayal of the Roman Catholic Church (1987) Gary Nash, The Urban Crucible (1979) Arthur Schlesinger, Sr., editor, A History of America Life (1948) Laurel T. Ulrich, Good Wives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England, 1650-1750 (1982) David J. Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America (1992)
1636 Harvard College founded 1644 Roger Williams's Bloudy Tenent of Persecution 1662 Half-Way Covenant in New England 1674 Bishopric of Quebec established 1680s William Penn begins recruiting settlers from the European Continent 1682 Mary Rowlandson's Sovereignty & Goodness of God 1689 Toleration Act passed by Parliament 1690s Beginnings of Jesuit missions in Arizona 1693 College of William and Mary founded 1700s Plains Indians domesticate the horse 1701 Yale College founded; Iroquois sign treaty of neutrality with France 1704 Deerfield raid 1708 Saybrook Platform in Connecticut
1716 Spanish begin Texas missions 1718French found New Orleans1730sFrench decimate the Natchez and defeat the Fox Indians 1732 Ben Franklin begins publishing Poor Richard's Almanac 1733Georgia founded1734Great Awakening begins1735John Peter Zenger acquitted from libeling New Yorks governor1738 George Whitefield first tours the colonies 1740sGreat Awakening gets under way in the Northwest 1740 Parliament passes a naturalization law for the colonies 1746 College of New Jersey (Princeton) founded 1760s Great Awakening - full impact in South 1769 Spanish colonization of CA begins (Father Junpero Serra) 1773 Pope Clement XIV abolished Society of Jesus (resurrected Pope Pius VII, 1814) 1775 Indian revolt at San Diego 1776 San Francisco founded 1781 Los Angeles founded
Crossing Cultural BoundariesIn 1704, Indians attacked the town of Deerfield, Massachusetts.Dozens of captives were delivered to the French allies of the Indians, including Eunice Williams, the daughter of John and Eunice Williams.Eunice refused to return to her family and stayed at Kahnawake, a Catholic Indian community near Montreal, becoming part of that community.Only 36 years later did Eunice, under her Iroquois name A'ongonte, return to Deerfield with her Iroquois family.
C: North American Regions
From Deerfield to KahnawakeCrossing Cultural Boundaries
Indian AmericaParticipation in the fur trade showed the remarkable ability of Indians to change and adapt to new conditions by:participating in the commercial economy;using metal tools; andbuilding homes of logs as frontier settlers did.Indians became dependent on European trade goods.Diplomatically, Indians played colonial powers off against each other.The major concern of Indians was the phenomenal growth of the colonial population in the British coastal communities.Simultaneously, Indian populations continued to decline.
The Introduction of the Horse
The introduction of the horse stimulated the rise of nomadic Plains culture.
The Spanish BorderlandsThe viceroyalty of New Spain was the largest and most prosperous European colony in North America.The northern borderlands of New Spain were considered a buffer zone of protection from other European colonies.In Florida, the colonial presence was weak causing the Spanish to form alliances with Indians and runaway slaves to create a multiracial society.In New Mexico, the population expanded by developing ranches and farms along the Rio Grande River.
The Mission SystemIn California, the mission system guided development in the 1770s.As shown by the mission system, the Catholic Church played a dominant role in community life.1834 Desecularization
The French Crescent
The French empire in North America was founded on a series of alliances and trade relations that linked a large crescent of colonies and settlements from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River down through the Great Lakes and along the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico.
The French ColoniesThe Catholic Church played a strong role in the French colonies.For defensive reasons, the French allied with Indian trading partners set up a line of military posts and settlements.Throughout Quebec, the French establish farming communities that ship wheat to Louisiana plantations.French communities combine French and Indian elements in architecture, dress, and family patterns.
New EnglandPuritan congregations governed local communities.Attempts to introduce religious toleration failed as other denominations practiced their faith openly by 1700.New England towns grew rapidly and the expanding population pressed against available land.
The Middle ColoniesNew York had one of the most ethnically diverse populations in North America.New York City grew tremendously but immigration to rural areas was lower than surrounding areas.Pennsylvania Quakers accept a more diverse population.Government institutions were pillars of community organization.Middle Colony communities were more individualistic than the tightly controlled New England communities.
Backcountry was a distinctive region where rank was often of little concern.Conflicts between settlers and Indians made the backcountry a violent region.
The SouthThe South was a tri-racial society of Europeans, Africans, and Indians.Large plantation house dominate Upper and Lower South.Small tobacco farms were widely found in the Upper South.White males dominated southern society.The Anglican Church was present in the South but had little power.In the Upper South, well-developed neighborhoods created a sense of community and white solidarity.
Traditional Culture in the New World
In the colonies, everyday life revolved around the family and kinship, the church, and the local community.Americans were attached to their regional cultures that were based on oral transmission.Community needs outweighed those of the individual.The majority of rural Americans were self-sufficient farmers who practiced diverse agriculture and engaged in crafts as sidelines.
Work and trades
In cities, artisans were organized according to the European craft system.Women had few career opportunities.
Land and Opportunity
Land in America was abundant and cheap but did not lead to a democratic society.Forced labor was common and few indentured servants won freedom and prosperity.The demand for land caused wars with Indians.
D: Diverging Social and Political Patterns
Population Growth and Immigration
In 1700, 290,000 colonists lived north of Mexico.In 1750, the colonial population had grown to almost 1.3 million.
The Ancestry of the British Colonial Population
Only the British colonies encouraged immigration.The Spanish feared depleting their population at home.The French blocked Protestant Huguenot immigration.
Social ClassColonial America was more egalitarian than Europe.In New Spain and New France, hereditary elites held privileges more in theory than practice.In the British colonies, the elite was open and based on wealth.The British colonies included a large middle and poor and unfree classes.
Economic Growth and Increasing Inequality
French and Spanish colonies were economically stagnant compared to the booming British colonies.Over time in the British colonies, the gap between rich and poor increased, especially in cities and commercial farming regions.In older regions, land shortage created a population of "strolling poor."
Contrasts in Colonial PoliticsUnlike the Frenc