â€œno gains without painsâ€ colonial life in north america
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NO GAINS WITHOUT PAINSColonial Life in North America
Working and TradingLife for Young Workers:In the 1700s, the growth of the colonies resulted in a growing need for hard workers. Many of these jobs began when a child was just 10 or 11 years old. What is your job right now? How many hours are you allowed to play? Work?These children were taught their trades as they worked as apprentices. An Apprentice: Is a young person who learns a skill from a more experienced person. These hard workers often worked more than 12 HOURS A DAY, had little free time, and hardly EVER a day off. This was a great opportunity for them, because it was the only way to become an artisan.
Working and TradingYoung Workers:Artisan= A skilled worker who makes things by hand. Rope makers, blacksmith, carpenter, candle makers and even SURGEONS.Most apprentices were boys. There were girls too.Boys: Chopped wood, Served Food, hunted and worked the fields.Girls: Made soaps, candles, clothing and food. Not all young people were apprentices, many children grew up on farms. Their work was just as hard, if not harder, than that of an apprentice.
Working and TradingFUN FACT:Did you know that the candles were made from the fat of sheep or cows? 1st The chunks of fat were melted in a kettle.Then a wick was dipped in the fat and was allowed time to harden.This had to be done over and over again until the candle was thick. They had a terrible smell.Later, colonists learned that they could make the candles with wax from wild berries.
Take a look at the jobs listed on page 204. Which of these jobs still exist today?
Colonial EconomiesColony regions were rich in many different natural resources. Can you remember some of them?New England Colonies: Economy based on forests and seas. TIMBER- very valuable. They sent this back to England, where most forests had been cut down.Fishing and whaling became a very popular export. Middle Colonies:Economy based on farm products and minerals. Mills were built to grind wheat grain into flour, and was shipped to other countries. Southern Colonies: Economy based on farming. Tobacco, rice, indigo (plant for blue dye.)Had small farms, and large plantations powered by slaves.
Colonial Economies: SLAVE TRADEBig trading centers: Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Charleston. Big part of trade was the slave trade. Africans were captured, sold and forced to work as slaves.
The Slave Trade
The Slave Trade*Trade routes were called Triangular Trade Routes. (Pg. 206)Why do you think?-Ships from New England brought guns and other goods to West Africa. - They traded these for gold and slaves.-The ship then went to the West Indies. (Middle Passage)*Many slaves on this voyage would die of hunger, thirst, disease or cruel treatment. -From where were tobacco and rice shipped? And to where?-Which goods were imported FROM England?-Which goods were exported TO England?
The Slave TradeWhen the ship arrived in the West Indies, they would exchange Africans and gold for sugar and molasses.They used the molasses to make rum. Some slaves were kept in the West Indies to work on sugar plantations; others went on to the Thirteen Colonies.
Cities, Towns and Farms.Benjamin Franklin:*Wanted to be a printer- Moved from Boston to Philadelphia- the largest city in the colonies.He helped the city to succeed by:Founding its first newspaper.Establishing its first library. Establishing its first hospital.Established its first Fire Department. (Fires were a big problem- why?)*
Cities, Towns and Farms
Colonial LifeAll over the colonies, families had farms.No matter where they lived, they had one thing in common. HARD WORK. Up in the morning I must rise Before Ive time to rub my eyes. But, Oh! It makes my heart to ache, I have no bread till I can bake, And then, alas! It makes me sputter, For I must churn or have no butter.-Ruth Belknap
COLONIAL TOWNSThroughout these times, many similar towns were built all over the New England.Many were Self-sufficient: They relied on themselves for things they needed.They grew their own food.Owned land.Had jobs and trades. (Can you name some?)Town Common- An open space where cattle and sheep could graze. (look on page 212)Had a meeting house.
COLONIAL TOWNSMiddle Colonies:Also had many small towns.Busy market places, stores, imported goods. Had workshops and mills. (For what?)
Southern PlantationsSouthern plantations were large farms where cash crops such as tobacco, rice and indigo were grown.Self-sufficient.Most work was performed by enslaved Africans.Owned by wealthy land owners- called planters. (Men or women) (See page 213)Eliza Lucas Pinckney was the first person in the 13 Colonies to raise a successful crop of indigo. (What was that used for again?)
Southern PlantationsOn the plantation:Work was directed by a plantation manager or Overseer.The overseer would give the slaves orders.Slaves were beaten or punished for not obeying.The slaves worked from morning to night on crops.Women and children cooked and cleaned the homes of the overseers.The slaves also worked for blacksmiths, carpentry shops, smokehouses, bakeries, laundry buildings and stables.