chinese philosophy

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  • 1. Do Now1- Take a note sheet from the back table2- Answer the following question on a scrappiece of paper:What would you do: You know that you arefailing a class. You know you will be introuble when your parents find out. Howwould you handle this situation?

2. Enduring Understanding Analyze how philosophy, religion, andtechnology molded Chinese society andgovernment Describe how Buddhism, Confucianism,Taoism (Daoism), and Legalism influencedChinese society 3. Philosophy doctrine: a belief (or system of beliefs) acceptedas authoritative by some group or school The rational investigation of questions aboutexistence and knowledge and ethics Any personal belief about how to live or how todeal with a situation; "self-indulgence was hisonly philosophy"; "my fathers philosophy ofchild-rearing was to let mother do it" 4. Three Doctrine and Legalism Philosophies which influenced thedevelopment and execution ofgovernment in China. Each dynasty useda different philosophy to guide decisionmaking 5. Confucius Says:He who learns butdoes not thinkis lost; he who thinks butdoes not learn is in danger 6. Confucianism vs. Buddhism: Why Buddhism? Confucianism is a belief system based onthe ideas of Confucius- A scholar whotaught moral virtues and ethics 7. Confucianism A belief system that waspracticed by Chinesedynasties and their subjects Confucius believed thatthere was a basic order inthe Universe that should bereflected in humanrelationships. The familyunit being the centralrelationship Confucianism emphasizedthe importance of education 8. 1. Ruler Subject2. FatherSon3. Husband Wife4. Older Younger BrotherBrother5. Older Younger Friend Friend 9. Confucianism Confucianism 5 Confucianemphasized the followingRelationships:principles: Ruler to Subject Use the right relationships Husband to Wifeto produce social order Parent to Child Respect for family and Elder brother to youngerolder generations brother Educate individuals and Friend to friendsocietyEach role had clearly defined Act in morally correct ways duties 10. Confucianism in Government Since the family unit is seen as theprimary social unit Chinas governmentwould be a monarchy with its structurebased on the structure of the family The ruler was seen to be the son ofheaven and the father of the people The role of the government was asprotector of the peoples welfare 11. Confucianism in Government Confucian political theory emphasized conflictresolution through mediation rather than theapplication of complex rules Civil service in which all officials were to beselected for their moral qualities that would allowthem to govern by example and their status wasmeasured by their scores on the civil-serviceexamination 12. How did Confucianism influenceChinese life? Confucius taught thatpeople could advancethemselves througheducation. An emphasison education helpedproduce an efficient, well-trained set of governmentofficials known asScholar-Leaders 13. Buddhism Buddhism- A religion that started in Indiain the 6th century by Siddhartha Gautamaalso known as The Buddha orEnlightened One 14. Buddhism Emphasized the FourBasic Truths Suffering is part of life The reason people suffer isthat they are too attachedto material possessionsand selfish ideas Suffering has an end By living in a wise, moral,and thoughtful way, peoplecan eventually learn toescape suffering 15. Not sure when hedied.[604 B.C.E. - ?]His name meansOld MasterWas he Confuciusteacher? 16. The basic text of Daoism.In Chinese, it means The Classic in the Way and Its Power.Those who speak know nothing: Those who know are silent. These words, I am told, Were spoken by Laozi. If we are to believe that Laozi, Was himself one who knew, How is it that he wrote a book, Of five thousand words? 17. 1. Dao [Tao] is the first-cause of the universe. It is a force that flows through all life.2. A believers goal is to become one with Dao; one with nature. [The butterfly or the man? story.]3. Wu wei --> Let nature take its course. --> The art of doing nothing. --> Go with the flow!4. Man is unhappy because he lives acc. to man-made laws, customs, & traditions that are contrary to the ways of nature. 18. To escape the social, political, & cultural trapsof life, one must escape by:1. Rejecting formal knowledge andlearning.2. Relying on the senses and instincts.3. Discovering the nature andrhythm of the universe.4. Ignoring political and social laws. 19. Feminine MasculinePassiveActiveDarkness LightCold WarmthWeak StrongEarth; Heaven;MoonSun 20. Daoism or Taoism: The Way orThe Path A belief system that seeks harmony with nature and inner feelings The only human actions that make sense are those which are in accord with the flow of nature Denounced violence as reflecting the ultimate ignorance of the way of nature Opposed Confucianism 21. Taoism Taoism rejects any human ideas or standardswhich might lead to: An overly assertive mode of behavior Too strong a commitment to the achievement ofworldly goals Denounce violence as reflecting the ultimateignorance of the way of nature No one should have excessive desires Wu-wei- non-action- does not mean doingabsolutely nothing, but don nothing unnatural 22. The Uncarved Block Taoist favor the spontaneous and thesimple which is reflected in their favoriteimage- The Uncarved Block The block which is uncut and uncrafted isassociated with an original simplicity andwholeness which is purely natural 23. 280? - 233 B.C.E.Han Fe Zi.Lived during thelate Warring Statesperiod.Legalism becamethe politicalphilosophy of theQin [Chin] Dynasty. 24. Legalism Guiding Principles Human nature is naturally selfish Intellectualism and literacy is discouraged Law is supreme authority and replacesmorality The ruler must rule with a strong authoritativehand War is the means for increasing a leaderspower 25. How is a man to live in a world dominated bychaos, suffering, and absurdity??Confucianism --> Moral order in society.Legalism --> Rule by harsh law & order.Daoism --> Freedom for individuals and less govt. to avoid uniformity and conformity. 26. More to Know Daoism Buddhism 8 FoldA clever mind is not a heartThere is more to knowing Paththan just being correct. To know the truth The wise know their To intend to resist evillimitations; the foolish do To not say anything to hurt othersnot. To respect life, property, and morality To work at a job that does not injure others To try to free ones mind from evil To be in control of ones feelings and thoughts To practice appropriate forms of concentration