Early Chinese Art Philosophy permeates fine art..

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  • Early Chinese ArtPhilosophy permeates fine art..

  • China has size of EuropeMost populated countryMany languages & ethnic groupsRuled by dynasties

  • Neolithic pottery cultures existed in ChinaYangshao culture5000 BCE

    Advanced pottery techniques with kiln, wheel, and glazingMarkings may be early writingNeolithic Art in China

  • Liangzhu culture, half human, half animal images over 5000 years oldCONG was used in burials and found in ancient tombsSophisticated jade carving techniquesJade is very hard and difficult to carveImage of face is often called a TAOTIE.CONGS were used in Neolithic Chinese tombs.

  • Bronze Age - Piece Mold Casting & Lost Wax bronze bells from the Zhou dynasty, 433 BCEThree bronze age Dynasties,: Xia, Shang, ZhouZhou dynasty was a feudal society (took over warrior society of Shang)Bells sounded 2 tones, scale in a variety of registersPhilosophers arose during this age - Confucius, Laozi, Mozi

  • Emperor Shih Huangdi, 210 BCE1st ruler of united China - Hin/Qin dynastyCodified written ChineseEstablished uniform currencyStarted famous Great Wall of ChinaBegan his majestic tomb (SOLDIERS)Insisted on govt based on accomplishments rather than family connections

  • Soldiers (Army of Emp. Shi Huangdi, terra cotta, c 210 BCE, Qin Dynasty)Flashcard

    Discovered in 19746 tall soliders8000 warriors, 100 chariots, 2 bronze chariots, 30,000 weaponsTomb of 1st Emperor of ChinaShi HuangdiDaoism shown in individuality of shoulders despite numbersChinese army marching into the next world.

  • Soldiers (Army of Emp. Shi Huangdi, terra cotta, c 210 BCE, Qin Dynasty)

    Soldiers were originally painted

  • HAN DYNASTY 206 BCE - 220 CEEND OF MYTHOCENTRIC AGESilk road was operationalPainted banner from the Han Dynasty, 160 BCE

    Painted on silk, in tomb of Marquess of Dai3 levels: heaven, earth & underworldHeaven top of the T: dragons, deity with long serpents tailEarth bottom part of T with deceased woman and attendantsUnderworld is belowReflects mythical beliefs later displaced by daoism confucioniam and buddhism

  • Chinese sculpture produced large scale sculptures such as the terra cotta army of Shi Huangdi, the Seated Buddha at Shanxi (cave) and this Seated Guanvin Bodhisattva.Buddhist philosophy was incorporated into neo-confucianism, with respect for nature, harmony, and metaphysical beliefs.

    Seated Guanvin Bodhisattva, wood with paint & gold, 95 x 65, Liao dynasty 10-th-12th century CE

  • Seated Buddha, Stone carving, 45 tall, 460 CE. flashcardShows Indian/Central Asian Buddhist iconography with large shoulders + slender body, lotus position, long ears, ushnishu, and peaceful smile.

  • Camel Carrying a Group of Musicians, flashcardTang Dynasty, 8th century CEEarthenware w/ 3 color glaze, 26 highChina had control over Central Asia again during Tang dynastyFascination w/Turkic cultures .. Shows Turkish musicans with Han ChineseNaturalism - new interest and trend in painting & sculptureBeautiful 3 color glazes, spontaneousSilk Road was flourishing, brought Chinese goods to WestNeoconfucianism= naturalism

  • Chinese PagodasPagodas developed from Buddhist stupas; the design was brought from India via the Silk RoadBuilt for sacred purpose, each design is repeated vertically on each level, getting progressively smaller.Japanese also developed pagodas

  • Great Wild Goose PagodaflashcardCien Temple, XianTang dynasty, 645 CETypical Chinese Buddhist pagodaAbout 210 tall (was taller, rebuilt during Ming dynasty after earthquake)

  • Forbidden City - flashcard, Beijing, China, Ming Dynasty (14th century), Hall of Supreme Harmony. Balance & symmetry, tradition Courtyard style emphasizing empty space with crowded spaces. Reflects Confucianism. Courtyard styles. Only royalty could enter-walled city 9000 buildings.

  • Forbidden City - Yellow roof tiles reserved for royalty. Red also royal color. Dragon symbols appear. Rooftops supported by duogang, used for Imperial buildings.Today this is a museum and tourist attraction.

  • More about typical Chinese architectureExterior walls of a courtyard style residenceFrame an atrium for tranquility- Elders live in suite of rooms on warmer north endChildren leave in the wingsCourtyard on larger scale in Forbidden CityWood structures, rectangular grideCONFUCIANISM

  • CALLIGRAPHY

    Chinese calligraphy considered the highest art form.Calligraphers have different styles and spend years perfecting the techniques.Children learned to write first by copying ideographsConfucius praised pursuit of knowledge & the arts; painting was to reflect moral concerns and calligraphy revealed the character of the writerSome calligraphy cannot be read by modern Chinese readers, it is so artistically doneLiterati - Confucian scholars- practiced this art formHand scrolls (Paintings) often have a label in calligraphy in the colophon section.

  • Portion of a letter by Wang XizhiSix Dynasties period, mid 4th century CE

    Feng Ju style - walking or semi cursive style fluid & graceful strokes, not too informal, but dynamic

  • Chinese Painting TraditionsFans, album leaves, and murals Handscrolls on silk or cotton with dowels (meant to be unrolled and enjoyed, not hung on wall).. Read right to left. Colophon - write comments or poetryHanging scrolls with main scene on front and title on top backSame brushes used for painting & calligraphy

  • Knight Shining White, Tang Dynasty, 750 CEOriginal handscroll was about 12 wideNow several feet with all enthusiastic descriptions, comments, poetry from readersDu Hua to literally, READ a painting as a form of appreciationPainters were highly valued; some Emperors becamse noted calligraphers and paintersStudied under appreentice ship system

  • Knight Shining White, Tang Dynasty, 750 CEThe discipline required derived from calligraphy. Traditionally, every literate person learned to write by copying Chinese ideographs. Then gradually exposed to different stylistic interpretations of these characters.Copied great calligraphers' manuscripts, which were often preserved on carved stones so that rubbings could be made.Aim of traditional painter was to capture not outer appearance but inner lenergy, apsirit. DRAGON STEEDRejected color or too much background infoPure line to define form, no opaque pigmanets white painting

  • Detail of Ladies Preparing Newly Woven Silk, example of a Handscroll, ink & colors, Northern Song Dynasty, early 12th century.. Shows Confucian virtues- copy honoring original (lost) from Tang Dynasty

  • Landscape paintings highly prized in Chinese art.Do not represent a particular forest, mountain, or view, but an artistic construct yielding a philosophical ideaSome parts of painting are empty & barren, others are crowded.. Yin/Yang of Daoism aka TaoismThis is an example of the empty space contrasted with calligraphy and densely detailed drawing

  • Travelers Among Mountains and Streams,Fan KaunNorthern Song Dynasty, 11th century CEHanging scroll, ink & colors on silk, 69 highSubtly graded ink tonesNorthern Song: fascination with precision and details as shown here.

    Flashcard image - Northern Song painting

  • Example of Southern Song landscape handscroll

    Section of 12 Views from a Thatched Hut; 13th century CE, Xia Gui.11 x 77 long

  • Dwelling in the Qinghian Mountains, 1617, ink on paper, Ming DynastyArtist: Dong Qi Chang

    Literati painters rejected traditional apprentice system run by the stateto pursue their own unique styles (contra Confucianism)Dong Qi Chang famous literati painter, influenced by DaoismThick paces contrast with open areas - negative space implies clouds

    Flashcard

  • Guan ware vases from the Song dynasty used crackled glazes to emphasize the simple symmetry of the form.

    PORCELAIN - a Chinese specialty.Fine, white clay fired at high temperature; Chinese perfected sophisticated glazing techniques

  • Jar, Ming dynasty, China15th Century, 19highXuande mark and period (1426-1435)Porcelain painted in underglaze blueExample of fine porcelain ware created during this periodTechnically superior, thin walls, glazing

    flashcard

  • Korean ArtCrown from 6th century, gold with jade ornaments

  • Arts of KoreaThree Kingdoms period saw incredible metalwork - crownHigh fired ceramicsBuddhist art; introduced to Korea in 4th centurySlender body, oval face BuddhaBodhisattva Seated in Mediation, Bronze, 35 high, Three Kingdoms Period (early 7th century)

  • Seated Shakyamuni BuddhaHands in bhumisparsha mudra (earth touching gesture of enlightement)Granite, 11 feet highSilla period, c 751

    Modeled after cave temples of China

  • Korean artists also developed beautiful hanging silk scrolls, such as this seated willow-branch piece

    Bodhisattva AvalokiteshvaraLate 14th century, 62 high

  • Maebveong bottle, 13th century KoreaCeladon ware, 13 highBamboo and blossoming plum treePale blue/green glaze over gray stonewareKoreans learned celadon glazing from ChineseClassical simplicitySome incised designsNot a flashcard but know what celadon ware is.

    Artist: n/aTitle: China and KoreaMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: n/aArtist: n/aTitle: BowlMedium: Painted potterySize: height 7" (17.8 cm)Date: Neolithic period, Yangshao culture, 50004000 BCESource/Museum: Banpo, near Xian, Shaanxi. / Banpo Museum

    Artist: n/aTitle: Schematic drawing of a congMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: n/a

    Artist: n/aTitle: Set of sixty-five bellsMedium: Bronze, with bronze and timber frameSize: frame height 9' (2.74 m), length 25' (7.62 m)Date: Zhou dynasty, 433 BCESource/Museum: Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, Suixian, Hubei. / Hubei Provincial Museum, Wuhan

    Artist: n/aTitle: SoldiersMedium: EarthenwareSize: life-sizeDate: Qin dynasty, c. 210 BCESource/Museum: From the mausoleum of Emperor Shihuangdi, Lintong, Shaanxi

    Artist: n/aTitle: SoldiersMedium: EarthenwareSize: life-sizeDate: Qin dynasty, c. 210 BCESource/Museum: From the mausoleum of Emperor Shihuangdi, Lintong, Shaanxi

    Artist: n/aTitle: Painted bannerMedium: Colors on silkSize: height 6'8" (2.05 m)Date: Han dynasty, c. 160 BCESource/Museum: Tomb of the Marquess of Dai, Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan. / National Museum, Beijing

    Artist: n/aTitle: Seated Guanyin BodhisattvaMedium: Wood with paint and goldSize: 95 X 65" (241.3 X 165.1 cm)Date: Liao dynasty, 10th12th century CESource/Museum: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. Purchase, Nelson Trust (3410)

    Artist: n/aTitle: Seated Buddha, Cave 20, YungangMedium: StoneSize: height 45' (13.7 m)Date: Northern Wei dynasty, c. 460 CESource/Museum: Datong, Shanxi

    Artist: n/aTitle: Camel Carrying a Group of MusiciansMedium: Earthenware with threecolor glazeSize: height 26 " (66.5 cm)Date: Tang dynasty, c. mid-8th century CESource/Museum: Tomb near Xian, Shanxi. / National Museum, Beijing

    Artist: n/aTitle: Elements of Architecture: PagodasMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: Early stupa, later stupa, watchflower, stone pagoda, wooden pagoda

    Artist: n/aTitle: Great Wild Goose Pagoda At Cien Temple, XianMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: Tang dynasty, first erected 645 CE; rebuilt mid-8th century CESource/Museum: Shanxi

    Artist: n/aTitle: Great Wild Goose Pagoda At Cien Temple, XianMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: Tang dynasty, first erected 645 CE; rebuilt mid-8th century CESource/Museum: Shanxi

    Artist: n/aTitle: Great Wild Goose Pagoda At Cien Temple, XianMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: Tang dynasty, first erected 645 CE; rebuilt mid-8th century CESource/Museum: Shanxi

    Artist: n/aTitle: Art and Its Context: Chinese CharactersMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: Chinese characters: Ancient, Modern, ideographs

    Artist: Wang Xizhi Title: Portion of a letter from the Feng Ju albumMedium: Ink on paperSize: 9 X 18" (24.7 X 46.8 cm)Date: Six Dynasties period, mid-4th century CESource/Museum: National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

    Artist: Attributed to Emperor HuizongTitle: Detail of Ladies Preparing Newly Woven SilkMedium: Handscroll, ink and colors on silkSize: 14 X 57" (36 X 145.3 cm)Date: Copy after a lost Tang dynasty painting by Zhang Xuan. Northern Song dynasty, early 12th century CESource/Museum: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Chinese and Japanese Special Fund (12.886)

    Artist: n/aTitle: Unmarked image on page 365Medium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: n/aArtist: Fan KuanTitle: Travelers Among Mountains and StreamsMedium: Hanging scroll, ink and colors on silkSize: height 6' 9" (2.06 m)Date: Northern Song dynasty, early 11th century CESource/Museum: National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

    Artist: Xia GuiTitle: Section of Twelve Views from a Thatched HutMedium: Handscroll, ink on silkSize: height 11" (28 cm) length of extant portion 7'7" (2.31 m)Date: Southern Song dynasty, early 13th century CESource/Museum: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. Purchase, Nelson Trust (32-159/2)

    Artist: Xia GuiTitle: Section of Twelve Views from a Thatched HutMedium: Handscroll, ink on silkSize: height 11" (28 cm) length of extant portion 7'7" (2.31 m)Date: Southern Song dynasty, early 13th century CESource/Museum: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. Purchase, Nelson Trust (32-159/2)

    Artist: n/aTitle: Guan ware vaseMedium: Gray stoneware with crackled grayish blue glazeSize: height 6 " (16.8 cm)Date: Southern Song dynasty, 13th century CESource/Museum: Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, London

    Artist: n/aTitle: Guan ware vaseMedium: Gray stoneware with crackled grayish blue glazeSize: height 6 " (16.8 cm)Date: Southern Song dynasty, 13th century CESource/Museum: Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, London

    Artist: n/aTitle: CrownMedium: Gold with jadeite ornamentsSize: height 17" (44.5 cm)Date: Three Kingdoms period, probably 6th century.Source/Museum: Korean. Silla kingdom, From the Gold Crown tomb, Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang province. / National Museum of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea

    Artist: n/aTitle: Seated Shakyamuni Buddha with hands in bhumisparsha mudra (the earth-touching gesture symbolizing his enlightenment)Medium: GraniteSize: height of Buddha only 11' 2" (342 cm)Date: Unified Silla period, c. 751Source/Museum: Seokguram Grotto, main Buddha. Korean. Near Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang province

    Artist: n/aTitle: Seated willow-branch Gwanseeum Bosal (The Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara)Medium: Hanging scroll; ink, colors, and gold pigment on silkSize: height 62 " (159.6 cm)Date: Goryeo dynasty, late 14th centurySource/Museum: n/a

    Artist: n/aTitle: Maebyeong bottle with decoration of bamboo and blossoming plum tree. Medium: Inlaid celadon ware: light gray stoneware with decoration inlaid withblack and white slips under celadon glazeSize: height 13 " (33.7 cm)Date: Goryeo dynasty, late 12thearly 13th centurySource/Museum: Korean. / Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo, Japan