Early Chinese Art Philosophy permeates fine art..

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Early Chinese ArtPhilosophy permeates fine art..China has size of EuropeMost populated countryMany languages & ethnic groupsRuled by dynastiesNeolithic pottery cultures existed in ChinaYangshao culture5000 BCEAdvanced pottery techniques with kiln, wheel, and glazingMarkings may be early writingNeolithic Art in ChinaLiangzhu culture, half human, half animal images over 5000 years oldCONG was used in burials and found in ancient tombsSophisticated jade carving techniquesJade is very hard and difficult to carveImage of face is often called a TAOTIE.CONGS were used in Neolithic Chinese tombs.Bronze Age - Piece Mold Casting & Lost Wax bronze bells from the Zhou dynasty, 433 BCEThree bronze age Dynasties,: Xia, Shang, ZhouZhou dynasty was a feudal society (took over warrior society of Shang)Bells sounded 2 tones, scale in a variety of registersPhilosophers arose during this age - Confucius, Laozi, MoziEmperor Shih Huangdi, 210 BCE1st ruler of united China - Hin/Qin dynastyCodified written ChineseEstablished uniform currencyStarted famous Great Wall of ChinaBegan his majestic tomb (SOLDIERS)Insisted on govt based on accomplishments rather than family connectionsSoldiers (Army of Emp. Shi Huangdi, terra cotta, c 210 BCE, Qin Dynasty)FlashcardDiscovered in 19746 tall soliders8000 warriors, 100 chariots, 2 bronze chariots, 30,000 weaponsTomb of 1st Emperor of ChinaShi HuangdiDaoism shown in individuality of shoulders despite numbersChinese army marching into the next world.Soldiers (Army of Emp. Shi Huangdi, terra cotta, c 210 BCE, Qin Dynasty)Soldiers were originally paintedHAN DYNASTY 206 BCE - 220 CEEND OF MYTHOCENTRIC AGESilk road was operationalPainted banner from the Han Dynasty, 160 BCEPainted on silk, in tomb of Marquess of Dai3 levels: heaven, earth & underworldHeaven top of the T: dragons, deity with long serpents tailEarth bottom part of T with deceased woman and attendantsUnderworld is belowReflects mythical beliefs later displaced by daoism confucioniam and buddhismChinese sculpture produced large scale sculptures such as the terra cotta army of Shi Huangdi, the Seated Buddha at Shanxi (cave) and this Seated Guanvin Bodhisattva.Buddhist philosophy was incorporated into neo-confucianism, with respect for nature, harmony, and metaphysical beliefs.Seated Guanvin Bodhisattva, wood with paint & gold, 95 x 65, Liao dynasty 10-th-12th century CESeated Buddha, Stone carving, 45 tall, 460 CE. flashcardShows Indian/Central Asian Buddhist iconography with large shoulders + slender body, lotus position, long ears, ushnishu, and peaceful smile. Camel Carrying a Group of Musicians, flashcardTang Dynasty, 8th century CEEarthenware w/ 3 color glaze, 26 highChina had control over Central Asia again during Tang dynastyFascination w/Turkic cultures .. Shows Turkish musicans with Han ChineseNaturalism - new interest and trend in painting & sculptureBeautiful 3 color glazes, spontaneousSilk Road was flourishing, brought Chinese goods to WestNeoconfucianism= naturalismChinese PagodasPagodas developed from Buddhist stupas; the design was brought from India via the Silk RoadBuilt for sacred purpose, each design is repeated vertically on each level, getting progressively smaller.Japanese also developed pagodasGreat Wild Goose PagodaflashcardCien Temple, XianTang dynasty, 645 CETypical Chinese Buddhist pagodaAbout 210 tall (was taller, rebuilt during Ming dynasty after earthquake)Forbidden City - flashcard, Beijing, China, Ming Dynasty (14th century), Hall of Supreme Harmony. Balance & symmetry, tradition Courtyard style emphasizing empty space with crowded spaces. Reflects Confucianism. Courtyard styles. Only royalty could enter-walled city 9000 buildings.Forbidden City - Yellow roof tiles reserved for royalty. Red also royal color. Dragon symbols appear. Rooftops supported by duogang, used for Imperial buildings.Today this is a museum and tourist attraction.More about typical Chinese architectureExterior walls of a courtyard style residenceFrame an atrium for tranquility- Elders live in suite of rooms on warmer north endChildren leave in the wingsCourtyard on larger scale in Forbidden CityWood structures, rectangular grideCONFUCIANISMCALLIGRAPHYChinese calligraphy considered the highest art form.Calligraphers have different styles and spend years perfecting the techniques.Children learned to write first by copying ideographsConfucius praised pursuit of knowledge & the arts; painting was to reflect moral concerns and calligraphy revealed the character of the writerSome calligraphy cannot be read by modern Chinese readers, it is so artistically doneLiterati - Confucian scholars- practiced this art formHand scrolls (Paintings) often have a label in calligraphy in the colophon section.Portion of a letter by Wang XizhiSix Dynasties period, mid 4th century CEFeng Ju style - walking or semi cursive style fluid & graceful strokes, not too informal, but dynamicChinese Painting TraditionsFans, album leaves, and murals Handscrolls on silk or cotton with dowels (meant to be unrolled and enjoyed, not hung on wall).. Read right to left. Colophon - write comments or poetryHanging scrolls with main scene on front and title on top backSame brushes used for painting & calligraphyKnight Shining White, Tang Dynasty, 750 CEOriginal handscroll was about 12 wideNow several feet with all enthusiastic descriptions, comments, poetry from readersDu Hua to literally, READ a painting as a form of appreciationPainters were highly valued; some Emperors becamse noted calligraphers and paintersStudied under appreentice ship systemKnight Shining White, Tang Dynasty, 750 CEThe discipline required derived from calligraphy. Traditionally, every literate person learned to write by copying Chinese ideographs. Then gradually exposed to different stylistic interpretations of these characters.Copied great calligraphers' manuscripts, which were often preserved on carved stones so that rubbings could be made.Aim of traditional painter was to capture not outer appearance but inner lenergy, apsirit. DRAGON STEEDRejected color or too much background infoPure line to define form, no opaque pigmanets white paintingDetail of Ladies Preparing Newly Woven Silk, example of a Handscroll, ink & colors, Northern Song Dynasty, early 12th century.. Shows Confucian virtues- copy honoring original (lost) from Tang DynastyLandscape paintings highly prized in Chinese art.Do not represent a particular forest, mountain, or view, but an artistic construct yielding a philosophical ideaSome parts of painting are empty & barren, others are crowded.. Yin/Yang of Daoism aka TaoismThis is an example of the empty space contrasted with calligraphy and densely detailed drawingTravelers Among Mountains and Streams,Fan KaunNorthern Song Dynasty, 11th century CEHanging scroll, ink & colors on silk, 69 highSubtly graded ink tonesNorthern Song: fascination with precision and details as shown here.Flashcard image - Northern Song paintingExample of Southern Song landscape handscroll Section of 12 Views from a Thatched Hut; 13th century CE, Xia Gui.11 x 77 longDwelling in the Qinghian Mountains, 1617, ink on paper, Ming DynastyArtist: Dong Qi ChangLiterati painters rejected traditional apprentice system run by the stateto pursue their own unique styles (contra Confucianism)Dong Qi Chang famous literati painter, influenced by DaoismThick paces contrast with open areas - negative space implies cloudsFlashcardGuan ware vases from the Song dynasty used crackled glazes to emphasize the simple symmetry of the form.PORCELAIN - a Chinese specialty.Fine, white clay fired at high temperature; Chinese perfected sophisticated glazing techniquesJar, Ming dynasty, China15th Century, 19highXuande mark and period (1426-1435)Porcelain painted in underglaze blueExample of fine porcelain ware created during this periodTechnically superior, thin walls, glazingflashcard Korean ArtCrown from 6th century, gold with jade ornamentsArts of KoreaThree Kingdoms period saw incredible metalwork - crownHigh fired ceramicsBuddhist art; introduced to Korea in 4th centurySlender body, oval face BuddhaBodhisattva Seated in Mediation, Bronze, 35 high, Three Kingdoms Period (early 7th century)Seated Shakyamuni BuddhaHands in bhumisparsha mudra (earth touching gesture of enlightement)Granite, 11 feet highSilla period, c 751Modeled after cave temples of ChinaKorean artists also developed beautiful hanging silk scrolls, such as this seated willow-branch pieceBodhisattva AvalokiteshvaraLate 14th century, 62 highMaebveong bottle, 13th century KoreaCeladon ware, 13 highBamboo and blossoming plum treePale blue/green glaze over gray stonewareKoreans learned celadon glazing from ChineseClassical simplicitySome incised designsNot a flashcard but know what celadon ware is.Artist: n/aTitle: China and KoreaMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: n/aArtist: n/aTitle: BowlMedium: Painted potterySize: height 7" (17.8 cm)Date: Neolithic period, Yangshao culture, 50004000 BCESource/Museum: Banpo, near Xian, Shaanxi. / Banpo MuseumArtist: n/aTitle: Schematic drawing of a congMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: n/aArtist: n/aTitle: Set of sixty-five bellsMedium: Bronze, with bronze and timber frameSize: frame height 9' (2.74 m), length 25' (7.62 m)Date: Zhou dynasty, 433 BCESource/Museum: Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, Suixian, Hubei. / Hubei Provincial Museum, WuhanArtist: n/aTitle: SoldiersMedium: EarthenwareSize: life-sizeDate: Qin dynasty, c. 210 BCESource/Museum: From the mausoleum of Emperor Shihuangdi, Lintong, ShaanxiArtist: n/aTitle: SoldiersMedium: EarthenwareSize: life-sizeDate: Qin dynasty, c. 210 BCESource/Museum: From the mausoleum of Emperor Shihuangdi, Lintong, ShaanxiArtist: n/aTitle: Painted bannerMedium: Colors on silkSize: height 6'8" (2.05 m)Date: Han dynasty, c. 160 BCESource/Museum: Tomb of the Marquess of Dai, Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan. / National Museum, BeijingArtist: n/aTitle: Seated Guanyin BodhisattvaMedium: Wood with paint and goldSize: 95 X 65" (241.3 X 165.1 cm)Date: Liao dynasty, 10th12th century CESource/Museum: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. Purchase, Nelson Trust (3410)Artist: n/aTitle: Seated Buddha, Cave 20, YungangMedium: StoneSize: height 45' (13.7 m)Date: Northern Wei dynasty, c. 460 CESource/Museum: Datong, ShanxiArtist: n/aTitle: Camel Carrying a Group of MusiciansMedium: Earthenware with threecolor glazeSize: height 26 " (66.5 cm)Date: Tang dynasty, c. mid-8th century CESource/Museum: Tomb near Xian, Shanxi. / National Museum, BeijingArtist: n/aTitle: Elements of Architecture: PagodasMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: Early stupa, later stupa, watchflower, stone pagoda, wooden pagodaArtist: n/aTitle: Great Wild Goose Pagoda At Cien Temple, XianMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: Tang dynasty, first erected 645 CE; rebuilt mid-8th century CESource/Museum: ShanxiArtist: n/aTitle: Great Wild Goose Pagoda At Cien Temple, XianMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: Tang dynasty, first erected 645 CE; rebuilt mid-8th century CESource/Museum: ShanxiArtist: n/aTitle: Great Wild Goose Pagoda At Cien Temple, XianMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: Tang dynasty, first erected 645 CE; rebuilt mid-8th century CESource/Museum: ShanxiArtist: n/aTitle: Art and Its Context: Chinese CharactersMedium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: Chinese characters: Ancient, Modern, ideographsArtist: Wang Xizhi Title: Portion of a letter from the Feng Ju albumMedium: Ink on paperSize: 9 X 18" (24.7 X 46.8 cm)Date: Six Dynasties period, mid-4th century CESource/Museum: National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaArtist: Attributed to Emperor HuizongTitle: Detail of Ladies Preparing Newly Woven SilkMedium: Handscroll, ink and colors on silkSize: 14 X 57" (36 X 145.3 cm)Date: Copy after a lost Tang dynasty painting by Zhang Xuan. Northern Song dynasty, early 12th century CESource/Museum: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Chinese and Japanese Special Fund (12.886)Artist: n/aTitle: Unmarked image on page 365Medium: n/aSize: n/aDate: n/aSource/Museum: n/aArtist: Fan KuanTitle: Travelers Among Mountains and StreamsMedium: Hanging scroll, ink and colors on silkSize: height 6' 9" (2.06 m)Date: Northern Song dynasty, early 11th century CESource/Museum: National Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.Artist: Xia GuiTitle: Section of Twelve Views from a Thatched HutMedium: Handscroll, ink on silkSize: height 11" (28 cm) length of extant portion 7'7" (2.31 m)Date: Southern Song dynasty, early 13th century CESource/Museum: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. Purchase, Nelson Trust (32-159/2)Artist: Xia GuiTitle: Section of Twelve Views from a Thatched HutMedium: Handscroll, ink on silkSize: height 11" (28 cm) length of extant portion 7'7" (2.31 m)Date: Southern Song dynasty, early 13th century CESource/Museum: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri. Purchase, Nelson Trust (32-159/2)Artist: n/aTitle: Guan ware vaseMedium: Gray stoneware with crackled grayish blue glazeSize: height 6 " (16.8 cm)Date: Southern Song dynasty, 13th century CESource/Museum: Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, LondonArtist: n/aTitle: Guan ware vaseMedium: Gray stoneware with crackled grayish blue glazeSize: height 6 " (16.8 cm)Date: Southern Song dynasty, 13th century CESource/Museum: Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art, LondonArtist: n/aTitle: CrownMedium: Gold with jadeite ornamentsSize: height 17" (44.5 cm)Date: Three Kingdoms period, probably 6th century.Source/Museum: Korean. Silla kingdom, From the Gold Crown tomb, Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang province. / National Museum of Korea, Seoul, Republic of KoreaArtist: n/aTitle: Seated Shakyamuni Buddha with hands in bhumisparsha mudra (the earth-touching gesture symbolizing his enlightenment)Medium: GraniteSize: height of Buddha only 11' 2" (342 cm)Date: Unified Silla period, c. 751Source/Museum: Seokguram Grotto, main Buddha. Korean. Near Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang provinceArtist: n/aTitle: Seated willow-branch Gwanseeum Bosal (The Bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara)Medium: Hanging scroll; ink, colors, and gold pigment on silkSize: height 62 " (159.6 cm)Date: Goryeo dynasty, late 14th centurySource/Museum: n/aArtist: n/aTitle: Maebyeong bottle with decoration of bamboo and blossoming plum tree. Medium: Inlaid celadon ware: light gray stoneware with decoration inlaid withblack and white slips under celadon glazeSize: height 13 " (33.7 cm)Date: Goryeo dynasty, late 12thearly 13th centurySource/Museum: Korean. / Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo, Japan