medicine, western and chinese philosophy

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Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine: This presentation was a part of a series of invited lectures on Western philosophy as the foundation of Western medicine.

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  • 1. The philosophical origins of Western medicine Robert Shaw Guangdong University of Foreign Studies

2. 2The public announcement 3. 3The public announcement These four meetings explore the philosophy that is relevant to the occurrence (phenomenon) of Western medicine. Modern science and modern technology are integral to Western medicine, and so we can pose the question: What are the metaphysical foundations of Western science, technology and medicine? 4. 4The public announcement The approach taken to this question draws upon the work of the German philosopher Martin Heidegger. It is an historical and philosophical enquiry. 5. 5The public announcement The series is a prolegomena - an initial exploration of related questions with no suggestion that we will draw conclusions about Western metaphysics. The style of presentation is Socratic and not declarative. 6. 61. The Origins 7. 71. The Origins of Western Ways The Pre-Socratic philosophers and Socrates began intellectual traditions that are still evident in Western philosophy, Western ways of living, and Western medicine. What are the pillars of Western thought which hold sway over our professional and private practices? What are the foundations of Western thought? Why did this distinctive approach to living occur? Parmenides and the Pythagoreans are important in this talk. 8. 82. Truth 9. 92. Truth in Western Thought Truth is one of the principal foundations of Western thought. Nevertheless, the concept of truth has been in contention since its birth. Many in the West pragmatists and sceptics believe that truth is unobtainable. This discussion examines the historical concepts of truth, the role of truth in medicine and Heideggers radical insights into the notion of truth. It introduces Heideggers notion of metaphysics and the role of truth therein. 10. 103. Science 11. 113. What is Science? The nature of modern science was contentious for Galileo and Newton. It remains so today because of the challenges that humanity confronts. For example, modern physics endures with pervasive conceptual problems, the relationship between science and society is a challenge, and science education falters because there is a lack of clarity about objectives. This talk introduces the hermeneutic philosophy of science and explores its implications. It contrasts this account of science with positivism and constructionism. 12. 124. Modernity 13. 134. Western Modernity and Medicine This talk draws upon the work of Kant, Nietzsche, Husserl, and Heidegger to discuss a radical reconceptualization of Western thought. The birth of modernity established for the West a crisis that embraces philosophy as much as the way of life of ordinary people. In literature, the novels of David Foster Wallace describe the crisis, as does Melvilles Moby Dick. This discussion considers the metaphysical crisis in Western medicine and speculates on the future. 14. Lecture 1 The Origin of Western Ways Robert Shaw Guangdong University of Foreign Studies 15. 15Structure for this talk Pythagoras Parmenides Plato 16. 16What do you need to think if you are to think as the West thinks? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.Rationality Logic Transcendence Reality Truth Evidence 17. 17Western metaphysics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.Rationality Logic Transcendence Reality Truth Evidence 18. 18Metaphysics , n. pl. With of: The theoretical principles or higher philosophical rationale of some particular branch of knowledge. Occas. construed as sing. 19. 19Metaphysics , n. pl.That branch of speculative inquiry which treats of the first principles of things, including such concepts as being, substance, essence, time, space, cause, identity, etc.; theoretical philosophy as the ultimate science of Being and Knowing. ; 20. 20Metaphysics , n. pl. In various inaccurate or extended uses (partly based on the erroneous etymology mentioned above): Used by some followers of positivist, linguistic, or logical philosophy: concepts of an abstract or speculative nature which are not verifiable by logical or linguistic methods. 21. 21Metaphysics A digressionDefinition pointless / strangely problematic After Aristotle: a search to find it appropriate Use is helpful Aristotle after physics, Thales (water) Ultimate reality What is (being) Heidegger: Western metaphysics = modernity Turner, W. (1911). Metaphysics. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10226a.htm 22. 22School of Athens Raphael, Sistine Chapel, 15111-Plato 2-Aristotle 3-Socrates 4-Xenophon 5-schines 6-Alcibiades 7-Zeno 8-Epicurus 9-Federico Gonzaga 10-Averroes 11-Pyhthagoras 12-Parmenides 13-Heraclitus 14-Diogenes 15-Archimedes 16 -Zoroaster 17-Ptolemy 18 Raphael. 23. 25 24. 28Ancient Western Philosophers 25. 29 26. 30 27. 31Pythagoreans -31. Pythagoras2. Pythagorean sects 5th & first-half of the 4th C BCE 3. Others said to be Pythagoreans centuries later 28. 32 29. 33Pythagorean sects What produced their ideas? How did they live? Leisure Political power Needs of lawInitiation secrecy elitism 30. 34 31. 35Pythagoreans 32. Pythagoreans 33. 37Pythagorean mathematics 34. 38 35. 39Parmenides Fragments of 800 verses 36. 40Parmenides 37. 42Parmenides Born 515 BCE Eleatic School (from Elea) Zeno c490 c430 The peninsula Those terrible Pythagoreans Xenophanes of Colophon (c.570 c.475) animals Gods, holism, truth & the unit Law needs the truth Rejection of the senses! Power of reasoning 38. 43Plato fragment on Parmenides 39. 44 40. 45On nature begins The mares (car) which carry me as far as my spirit ever aspired were escorting me, when they brought me and proceeded along the renowned road of the goddess, which brings a knowing mortal to all cities one by one. On this path I was being brought, on it wise mares were bringing me, straining the chariot, and maidens were guiding the way. 41. 46The two worlds 42. 47Parmenides poem Journey from darkness to light The way of opinion doxa, perception The way of truth logos (being) To think like God 43. 48Parmenides insights He brings to Western thought Logic Importance of existence Truth (not Doxa) The province of the Gods 44. 49Plato 45. 50Plato427 BC 407 BC 403 BC 399 BC 398 BC c. 385BC 380 BC 367 BC 361 BC 347 BCBorn at Athens, Greece Meets Socrates Turns from politics toward philosophy The execution of Socrates by the Athenians Plato flees to Megara with other Socratics Travels Egypt, Cyrene, Italy, Syracuse and Sicily Founds his Academy outside of Athens Second trip to Syracuse Attempt to make Syracuse king a philosopher Dies at his Academy 46. 51Platos Academy From 1 BC Critical thinking taught 47. 52Plato: The Republic Third century manuscript, earliest c 380 BC (1713 text) Socratic dialog Ten books 48. 53Major advances Use of reason Integration of thought Justice Individual Utopia Analysis of society Political theory Education Epistemology / ontology Appearance & reality Doctrine of forms Allegory of the cave 49. 54The RepublicPrologueI.1. 327a328b. Descent to the Piraeus I.2I.5. 328b331d. Cephalus. Justice of the Older Generation I.61.9. 331e336a. Polemarchus. Justice of the Middle Generation I.101.24. 336b354c. Thrasymachus. Justice of the Sophist Introduction II.1II.10. 357a369b. The Question: Is Justice better than Injustice? Part I: Genesis and Order of the PolisII.11II.16. 369b376e. Genesis of the Polis II.16III.18. 376e412b. Education of the Guardians III.19IV.5. 412b427c. Constitution of the Polis IV.6IV.19. 427c445e. Justice in the Polis Part II: Embodiment of the Idea V.1V.16. 449a471c. Somatic Unit of Polis and Hellenes V.17VI.14. 471c502c. Rule of the Philosophers VI.19VII.5. 502c521c. The Idea of the Agathon VII.6VII.18. 521c541b. Education of the Philosophers Part III: Decline of the Polis VIII.1VIII.5. 543a550c. Timocracy VIII.6VIII.9. 550c555b. Oligarchy VIII.10VIII.13. 555b562a. Democracy VIII.14IX.3. 562a576b. Tyranny Conclusion IX.4IX.13. 576b592b Answer: Justice is Better than Injustice.Epilogue X.1X.8. 595a608b. Rejection of Mimetic Art X.9X.11. 608c612a. Immortality of the Soul X.12. 612a613e. Rewards of Justice in Life X.13X.16. 613e621d. Judgment of the Dead 50. 55Plato: The Republic 1. Aristocracy Head Guardians rule Meritocracy or proto-technological state Paternalistic 2. Timocracy Chest Spirit rules People who love honour The warriors rule City state Spata Security G Bush 3. Oligarchy Stomach Emerges from the tension between economic status and honour Divides the rich and poor Creates criminals and beggars Rich plot against the poor and visa versa 4. Democracy Stomach The poor win Desire rules People become downtrodden 5. Tyranny Outcome of excessive freedom Commoners invest power in a an elected demagogue who becomes corrupted by power Leaders have a small group of loyal supporters for protection and control of the masses.Doctrine of three: head chest stomach The Soul 1. Reason 2. Spirit (zest) 3. Desire (for food, sex ) Castes of society 1. Governing 2. Protective 3. Productive 51. 56Platos analogy of the cave 52. 57The Republic 53. 58Conclusion The Ancient Greeks are still with us, if hidden The problems they found, we find Our task is to think for ourselves Three philosophers augment our thinking 54. 591. The Origins of Western Ways The Pre-Socratic philosophers and Socrates began intellectual traditions that are still evident in Western philosophy, Western ways of living, and Western medicine. What are the pillars of Western thought which hold sway over our professional and private practices? What are the foundations of Western thought? Why did this distinctive approach to living occur? Parmenides and the Pythagoreans are important in this talk. 55. 601. The Origins 56. 61Western metaphysics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.Rationality Logic Transcendence Reality T

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