cfc fooddeserts

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Found communities that were considered food deserts in terms of physical access using a variety of data collection methods and GIS software for analysis.

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  • CFC Food Mapping Project Geos 459 Applied GIS Capstone Project

    Jacqui Anhorn #000626524

    Nancy Pham #000641236

    Mary Pickering #000306405

    City of Calgary: Are We Living in a Food Desert?

    SAIT Polytechnic 2014

  • Client Background Project Overview Stakeholders

    What is a food desert? Methodology Geospatial Technology Notes Network Analysis

    Four main modes of transportation Output

    Data Driven Pages Python Scripting

    Findings Sectors Complete Communities Lowest Access Communities

    Summary

    Questions 1-4 Conclusion Lessons Learned Future Improvements

    References

    2

    AGENDA

  • The Calgary Food Committee was established to undertake a Food

    System Assessment and Action Plan for Calgary (Yycfood.com 2014)

    Under the direction of City of Calgary Council

    Having completed the Food System Assessment and Action Plan, the

    CFC is now focused on moving towards fulfilling the Calgary Food Vision

    Calgary Food Vision: To create a sustainable and resilient food system for the Calgary region so that every Calgarian has access to local,

    healthy and environmentally friendly food.

    3

    Healthy

    Accessible

    Community

    development

    Sustainable Food System Principles:

    Local

    Secure supply

    Environmentally

    sustainable

    CLIENT BACKGROUND

  • Help the CFC identify food deserts throughout the City of Calgary

    This project will be part of the Calgary EATS! progress report to City

    Council in the fall of 2014

    Food Mapping

    To see how communities are connected to food retailers in terms

    of physical access

    Walking

    Cycling

    Driving

    Transit

    Guiding Question:

    Is Calgary comprised of complete communities in terms of physical access to food?

    4

    PROJECT OVERVIEW

  • Calgary Food Committee

    Contributes to the Calgary Eats! Calgary Food System Assessment

    and Action Plan

    Helps achieve the food vision and principles

    Develops a complete community model in terms of physical

    access to food

    Assists in identifying food deserts throughout the City of Calgary

    City of Calgary

    Promotes healthier lifestyles and green initiatives, community

    building, and strengthens the economy

    Allow planners and developers to use the data/analysis for the

    future growth of the city

    Residents of Calgary

    Increase community awareness of a sustainable food system

    Show available modes of transportation to access food

    5

    STAKEHOLDERS

  • A district (rural or urban) with little or no access to foods needed to maintain a healthy diet but often served primarily by fast food restaurants and/or convenience stores (Calgary Food and Assessment & Action Plan 2012)

    There is no clear agreement on what measures are relevant in identifying food deserts

    City of Edmonton study used 750 meters in terms of walkability (2008)

    City of Montreal study used 650 meters for walkability (2010)

    Case study in Seattle-King County, Washington used a time of 10 minutes to measure the four main modes of transportation (2012)

    For the purposes of our project and based on our guiding question, we are analyzing the four main modes of transportation to help determine food deserts in Calgary

    Walking

    Cycling

    Driving

    Transit

    6

    WHAT IS A FOOD DESERT?

  • Microsoft Excel and Access

    City of Calgary Census Data

    Geocoding

    Grocery store locations

    Network Analysis

    Used the city's circulation system (roads and trails) and public transit

    stops (LRT and bus) to create service areas around grocery stores and

    transit stops

    Tabulate Intersection

    Found percentage of service area coverage within each community

    Quantitative method to compare communities

    Data Driven Pages and Python Scripting

    Created a series of MXD layouts

    Produced a hardcopy map book

    7

    METHODOLOGY

  • Data Capture

    City of Calgary Open Data Catalogue

    City of Calgary Civic Census Results (2013)

    Alberta Health Services (food retail data)

    Google to find additional addresses to geocode

    Data Management

    Keeping raw data and manipulated data separate

    Microsoft Excel and Microsoft Access

    ArcCatalog (Geodatabase, datasets, etc)

    Data Analysis

    Network Analysis

    Tabulate Intersection

    Data Output

    Hard copy map book 8

    GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY

  • Used food retailers provided by the Alberta Health Services

    Major food retail facilities have been defined as those indicated as a grocery store within the AHS data (Calgary Food and Assessment Plan 2012)

    Year-round farmers markets were used

    Calgary Farmers Market

    Crossroads Flea Market

    Kingsland Farmers Market

    Parkdale Farmers Market

    For our network analysis, we presumed sidewalks existed on at least

    one side of each road

    Analyzed residential communities with population greater than 0

    9

    *NOTES

  • NETWORK ANALYSIS

  • A measure of the effectiveness of community design in promoting walking to reach shopping, schools, and other common destinations (Esri 2012)

    For our project, we used the distance of 1 kilometer for our analysis

    Why?

    Was used in a previous project as referenced in the Calgary Food

    System Assessment & Action Plan (2012)

    Other Canadian cities used this distance as a measure of walkability:

    Study on Vancouver to compared to bikeability (Walkability and

    Bikeability: What is the link? 2011)

    11

    WALKABILITY

  • 12

    Walkability Service Areas

    6

    10 10

    16 16

    21

    24

    31

    Number of Residential Communities

    *134 communities in Calgary have less than 50%

    walking service area coverage

    Service Area Coverage

    Less than 50% Walkability

  • 13

    For our project, we used the distance of 2 kilometers for our analysis

    Why?

    While no widely-held standard exists for cycling, the analysis reveals a median distance of around two kilometers with a high

    degree of variation in distances. (Beyond the Quarter Mile: Examining Travel Distances by Walking and Cycling 2010)

    CYCLING

  • 14

    Cycling Service Areas

    0

    2

    3

    4

    6 6 6 6

    Number of Residential Communities

    *33 communities in Calgary have less than

    50% cycling service area coverage

    Service Area Coverage

    Less than 50% Cycling

  • 15

    Includes all bus stops and LRT stations within the City of Calgary

    For our project, we used the distance of 400 meters for our analysis

    Why?

    A distance of 400m is used as an accessibility indicator between population and jobs and primary transit within the Municipal

    Development Plan (MDP) and Calgary Transportation Plan (CTP). (Calgary Food and Assessment & Action Plan 2012)

    TRANSIT

  • 16

    Transit Service Areas

    0 1 1

    3 3

    6

    7

    9

    Number of Residential Communities

    * 30 communities in Calgary have transit service

    area coverage less than 50% of total

    community area

    Service Area Coverage

    Less than 50% Transit

  • 17

    For our project, we used travel times of 3, 5, and 10 minutes for our

    analysis

    Why?

    Based on the generalization that people tend to measure driving

    distance with travel time as opposed to an exact number of

    measurement

    DRIVING

  • 18

    Driving Service Areas

  • OUTPUT

  • We needed to make 3 maps for each community (total of 252

    communities)

    Data Driven Pages is a feature in ArcMap which allows you to create

    a series of layout pages from a single map document

    A single layout is composed for each data-driven page

    Dynamic parts of the layout change with each page

    Static elements stay the same

    Saved us time because it created layouts based on the community

    name attribute column!

    3 x 252 = 756 layouts we wouldve had to make on our own!

    20

    DATA DRIVEN PAGES DATA DRIVEN PAGES

  • 21

    DATA DRIVEN PAGES

  • Used Python scripting, we were able to generate a 785 page

    document

    a series of maps at the city, ward, and community level to show

    access in terms of the four main modes of transportation

    22

    No time wasted converting each map into PDFs and then combining them all into one PDFTHIS SCRIPT DOES IT ALL FOR YOU!

    PYTHON SCRIPTING

  • FINDINGS

  • 24

    SECTORS

    The pie charts display the combined service area percentage of

    communities above and below 50 percent.

    Total of 134 communities

  • 25

    Complete Communities

    Sectors

    Complete Communities

    Water Bodies

    Major Parks

    Communities

    98.15 97.02

    96.15

    93.58 92.77

    92.31 92.10 91.53 91.48

    90.55

    Residential Communities with Highest

    Combined Service Area Coverage

    Combined Service Area Percentage

  • 26

    Lowest Access Communities

    Sectors

    Complete Co