Cepheus (Oribatoidea), Especially in the Eastern United States

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  • Cepheus (Oribatoidea), Especially in the Eastern United StatesAuthor(s): Arthur Paul JacotSource: Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, Vol. 47, No. 2 (Apr., 1928), pp.262-268+270-271Published by: Wiley on behalf of American Microscopical SocietyStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3222178 .Accessed: 28/06/2014 09:58

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    Shantung Christian University

    The Genus. The type of this genus is C. latus Koch 1835, fasc. 3/11 by original designation (see Uebersicht, vol. 3, foreword, last paragraph, where Koch states that at the head of each genus he has given a figured specimen to stand as type). The figure of the Uebersicht is a mere outline but concords with that of his "Deutschlands Cructaceen, Myriapoden und Arachniden" except for the shading. The description is as follows:

    Of average size. Cephaloprothorax broad conic, somewhat broad behind with a somewhat blunt lateral angle, and broad lamellae covering the upper surface and the anterior part; the usual, whitish, clavate pseudostigmatic organ not long and moderately thick. Abdomen somewhat short, broadened behind, bluntly rounded on hind edge, with somewhat projecting lateral edge; the surface above with fine wrinkling (slightly rugose, in latin) and not smooth. The femurs, seen from the side, broad ovate.

    Body dark reddish brown (rusty brown), the cephaloprothorax darker, sides of abdomen and cephaloprothorax under the reddish-brown lamellae dark brown, sometimes also black. Legs rusty-yellow. Under moss in evergreen woods. Near Regensburg not a rarity.

    In the figures, the lamellae join, covering the rostrum, the pseudo- stigmatic organs are recurved, the body is longer than broad, legs I. have major bristles besides other long bristles.

    Nicolet (1855, p. 445) reappoints a type to Cepheus, namely his Cepheus vulgaris, a species of entirely different structure from the original type. Michael blindly follows him, as does also Berlese, and others.

    Further on Nicolet (p. 464), using one of Hermann's specific names (tegeocranus), outlines a new genus in which he places Koch's type of Cepheus though he appoints another species as type. Thus, Cepheus Koch and Cepheus Nicolet are not congeneric but subsequent writers, from this mixing of types, received erroneous impressions and have placed their species of Cepheus under the term Tegeocranus.

    Furthermore, Nicolet on p. 446 describes a new species which he calls Cepheus latus while on page 465 he places Cepheus latus of Koch as synonym under his new name Tegeocranus cepheiformis. This is what the French call "avoir du toupet." Subsequent writers indiscriminatingly follow him. Later (1887) Michael corrects this in part. He recognizes that C. latus Koch is not T. cepheiformis Nicolet and so he reinstates C. latus Koch, but ignores it as the originally designated type of Cepheus Koch.

    Andre (1925) renames C. latus Nicolet as C. permixtus, but he does not go so far as to recognize C. latus Koch as type of the genus Cepheus Koch.


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    As this leaves Cepheus Nicolet and subsequent authors without a proper designation, I propose the term Pseudocepheus with Cepheus vulgaris Nicolet as type. I see no resemblance between Notaspis tegeocranus Her- mann and Cepheus ,ulgaris Nicolet.

    Cepheus, a (presumably negroid) king of Ethiopia, is a masculine noun.


    Tegeocranus cepheiformis Nicolet, (p. 465, pl. 9, fig. 1, not Cepheus latus Nicolet, p. 446), is a true Cepheus. In figure 1, the lamellae are joined at apex, in figs. la and lb, they are narrowly separated. In figure lb they are not obliquely truncate as in the other figures. They far exceed the rostrum which is twice figured without rostral bristles. The interlamellar bristles are at base of cephaloprothorax. The pseudostigmatic organs are rigid, not reflected. The anterior edge of notogaster is figured convex. The abdomen is broader than long, more quadrate than ovate, and punctured and striated. The legs are figured without major bristles or other long bristles.

    Very common in woods of Satory and Breche.

    Tegeocranus latus Michael 1883, (p. 310, pl. 19, figs. 1-9) is a third species of Cepheus Koch having lamellae widely separated so that the rostrum projects, making'rostral bristles visible from above; interlamellar bristles remote from notogaster; pseudostigmatic organs reflexed; abdomen longer than broad, more ovate than quadrate; tibia I with major bristle.

    Fairly common; decayed stumps and fallen branches in thick woods; generally distributed.

    Tegeocranus dentatus Michael 1887, (p. 338, pl. 26 figs. 1-7 and 9) a fourth species, has lamellae antero-laterally emarginate and remote; interlamellar bristles distant; pseudostigmatic organs recurved; 14 medium long, circumnotogastral bristles; tibia I with major bristles.

    Fairly common; decayed stumps and fallen branches with T. latus Michael; generally distributed.

    Tegeocranus cepheiformis Michael 1887, (p. 340, pl. 25, figs. 1-7) not Nicolet, has lamellae separated by a knife cut; interlamellar bristles near together but remote from notogaster; pseudostigmatic organs re- curved; tibiae I with major bristle; notogaster anteriorly but slightly convex, outer corners prominently anteriorly produced, without bristles; posterior margin with 6 very short, stiff bristles.

    New Forest, Gomshall (Surrey), near Stone (Staffordshire); fir trees (Picea), fallen needles, on bark, particularly fallen.

    Thus quite different from Nicolet's. The abdomen seems to have coarser corrugations and the vertex is smooth. It may be known as Cepheus michaeli nom. nov.


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    Tegeocranus cepheiformis Berlese 1886, (fasc. 33/7 and 1890, fasc. 57/5) is still different and seems composite. Careful work will have to be done on the Italian species before they can be intelligently discussed.

    Tegeocranus hericius Michael 1887, (p. 346, pl. 25, figs. 8-13), may well be placed in a different subgenus but the great similarity of the nymphs to the nymphs of the other species of this group, is sufficient grounds to retain it within the genus. Due to its more primitive characters, namely, lesser development of lamellae, undifferentiated notogastral sculpture, large number of bristles (a nymphal character) and entire lack of develop- ment of antero-lateral corners of notogaster, I propose for it the term:

    PROTOCEPHEUS subgen. nov.

    Type: Tegeocranus hericius Michael 1887, (p. 346, pl. 25, figs. 8-13). It should be noted that although the adult of this species is less special-

    ized than those of the genus proper, the nymph (fig. 9) is very similar to that of T. dentatus and T. latus Michael (see his plate 26, figs. 8, 9, 10). The subgeneric characters are listed above.


    Cepheus (Oribatodes) mirabilis (Banks) 1895a, p. 10, differs from all other species in having 18 long, stout, conspicuous, barbed bristles on notogaster (besides four short ones on posterioi rim). This character is sufficient to segregate the species in the subgenus of which it is monotypic. Like the other species of the genus, this one has monohamate ungues. It has been thrice named, described and figured as follows:

    Sea Cliff, Long Id., N. Y.; in rotten debris under loose bark of dead trees; five specimens (one with six eggs) taken at different times. Described as Oribatodes mirabilis.

    Blue Hill, Mass.; Oct. 1; one specimen; described as Cepheus lamellatus Banks 1906b, p. 467, pl. 15, fig. 14.

    Washington, D. C.; from moss; one specimen; described as Tegeocranus longisetus Berlese 1910, p. 228, pl. 21, fig. 82.

    Also collected by Jacot at: Monroe, Conn.; upland swamp, clump of Carex stricta Lam.; twenty

    specimens taken Aug. 5-10; slides nos. 2511-2514. Same but from nearby clump of sphagnum moss; Aug. 18; twenty-seven specimens under nos. 2521n2 and 2522nl. Some of these specimens contain four to six eggs.

    CEPHEUS CORAE sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: Lamellae separated by a very narrow cleft; interlamellar hairs remote from notogaster and from lamellae; pseudostigmatic organs recurved; notogaster coarsely reticulate; antero-lateral corners produced, pteromorphal ridge distinct, finely sculptured; bristles not evident, five very fine ones on each side and two on posterior border.


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    Form: From above (figure 1) broadly pyriform, blunt at both ends, from side (figure 2) irregularly three fourths of a semicircle; from in front broadly oval.

    Cephaloprothorax (figs. 1 and 2) broadly conical; tectopedia II pro- jecting as rectangular bosses below and anterior to pseudostigmata; rosturm barely visible between lamellae, rostral bristles invisible from above, small (see figure 2 just above genual I), smooth above, reticulate on sides; lamellae broad, slightly notched to receive bristles, narrowing towards base and outwardly deflected at base, reticulate throughout, bristles thick, sharply bent towards each others near middle; interlamellar bristles coarse (thick) rather short, smooth; tectopedia I forming a long, low ridge near base of lamellae (figure 2); tectopedia II forming a second low ridge extending from posterior edge of pseudostigmata slightly forward to posterior edge of base of leg I (figure 2) and then passing beneath it as a broad shelf. Figure 6 shows the cephaloprothorax viewed from in front and a little from the right side. The camerostome is seen to be en- circled by a thickened band which breaks up at the sides into a complex of ridges which radiate out to join the tectopedia. Above these is a second, short ridge upon which terminate the lamellae. This has been called a translamella by some. Above the lamellae the ends of the interlamellar bristles are visible. The rostral and lamellar bristles have been omitted. The anterior end of the sternum (st.) is just visible below the camerostome and to each side, curving up to tectopedia II, are the apodemata. Pseudo- stigmatic organs (figures 3 and 4) with a short, broad, club-like head with spiny tip, pedicel below curve about 15 microns, beyond curve about 40 microns.

    Abdomen seen from above (figure 1) nearly circular, very slightly longer than broad, anterior margin slightly convex, finely crenate, remain- der irregularly undulate, posterior margin with two broad notches in whose center is a short, curved, subbarbate bristle (see slso figure 2). From the side: obliquely truncate behind, straight below, convex above. Notogaster divided into two distinct parts, a low vaulted top (shield) and a wedge- shaped side, broadest behind; shield coarsely reticulate; reticulations angular about center, seeming more rounded about periphery, rim of shield smooth, broden at subequal intervals along sides by five, short ridges bearing at or beyond their apex a fine, straight bristle which does not extend to rim of notogaster; sides divided into three wedge-shaped sections, the lower-most smooth, the upper two corrugated by cross ridges which meet obliquely to form a broken, irregular, separating ridge; anterior end of this ridge expanded as a broad, low, finely crenulate ridge, which projects beyond anterior rim of notogaster as a blunt shoulder (figures 1 and 2). Though actually a rudimentary pteromorpha, this ridge is hardly enough developed to place the species among the Pterogasterine Oribatids.


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    Other species of the genus have this pteromorphic ridge equally or less fully to not at all developed (judging from Nicolet's figure of his T. cepheiformis). This ridge is further illustrated in figures 4 and 6. In the former, which is a view from behind, looking toward the arched lamella, the shoulder of the ridge is figured in detail; in the latter the ridge is seen from below. Venter (fig. 2) separated from cephaloprothorax by a low, narrow ridge; apodemata I at sides of camerostome, apodemata II descending and parallel to posterior sides of camerotome but remote from it, and above "suture" running between insertion of legs II nearly at right angles to median plane; parasterna I reticulate on anterior half, smooth, like the others, on posterior half, with short, fine bristle near center; a pair of sternal bristles between ends of suture and a pair anterior to these; apdemata II slightly bowed ventrad, just above "suture;" parasterna II bristle-less (unless the area between ends of preceding suture is part of parastenum II); tectopedium III narrow, flat on posterior face and followed by a wide notch in which coxa III articulates, a long slender bristle near ventral margin of this notch; parasterna III entirely anterior to genital aperture, its sides subparallel, with three pairs of bristles: an anterior pair over center of apodemata III, the others forming a line along center of plate and included by sides of genital opening produced; para- sterna IV roughly triangular, at sides of genital opening, with a short bristle near posterior angle; remainder of venter irregularly corrugated and reticulated, but with a smooth band about genital and anal openings; a bristle each side of anal aperture outside first ridge; genital aperture slightly longer than broad, about one fourth its diameter from anal aper- ture, anterior margin convex, sides slightly converging posteriorly, posterior margin only slightly convex; covers with six bristles along inner margin, the anterior four subequally and most closely spaced, greatest space be- tween fourth and fifth; anal aperture longer than genital, nearly as broad as long, very narrow and oblique anteriorly, sides rapidly diverging, posterior margin deeply convex, slightly further from posterior edge of ventral plate than breadth of an anal cover, covers broadly overlapping anterior edge, their anterior margin being convex, posterior margin drawn out to a blunt point on median line, each with two bristles remote from edge and from ends; post-anal bristles (four) subequally spaced and half way between aperture and plate edge.

    Legs (figures 1 and 2) with monhamate ungues; proximal segments with but few short hairs, distal segments with many long hairs; tarsus I the broadest, tarsus IV the slenderest, tibia III the slenderest, genuals I and II much longer than genuals III and IV, femur II the longest, coxa III the smallest. Leg I the longest, tarsus with three very long anteriorly directed bristles on dorsal face, the uppermost recurved and preceded by two short, recurved bristles, ventral face with four bristles,


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    one quite long, outer side with two, distal end with four to five, fine bristles; tibia with a long, slender bristle on dorsal face on distal margin and a short one proximad, ventral face with two short ones at distal end, two short, rather stout bristles on inside at distal end, the posterior one very slightly barbate; genual two-thirds length of tibia, with two short bristles at distal end, the dorsal outer one close to margin, the other remote; femur with two short bristles about distal end, the anterior-most on dorsal face, the more remote on outside, two others on ventral face, one of them near base of petiole, the other at broadest part. Leg II very similar but tarsus with fewer long bristles, tibia with four shorter bristles, the posterior one slightly barbate; genual having three distal bristles; femur with three bristles (as in figure 2). Leg III similar to leg IV but tarsus slightly stouter and with more bristles; femur with two slightly barbed bristles on dorsal face at dis- tal end, the posterior-most on outer face; coxa smaller, with a stout bristle on outer face. Leg IV much less heavily armed than leg I; tarsus with but two long bristles on dorsal face, two faintly barbed ones on ventral face, and several fine ones about distal end; tibia with four bristles about distal end: a long dorsal one, a short ventral one, and two on inner face, the distal-most fairly long and faintly barbed; genual with two short bris- tles near distal end; femur broad, with a narrow keel on ventral face, one short bristle on dorsal face at distal end and a very fine one on ventral face proximad of center; coxa almost globular, with a keel on ventral face, postero-dorsal angle produced as a spine.

    Of the 34 specimens examined, the ovipositor is not once extruded, and but seven contain eggs, two to four in number. Thus the egg capacity is distinctly less than that of C. mirabilis.

    Color: In balsam mounts from pale lemon yellow in thinly chitinized individuals to chestnut in the older ones.

    Dimensions: Quite uniform, much more so than in C. mirabilis. One of the larger specimens measured: total length 680 microns, length of notogaster 500 microns, breadth of notogaster 470 microns.

    Material Examined: Monroe, Conn.; upland swamp, clump of Carex stricta Lam.; fifteen specimens taken Aug. 5-15; Jacot, slides nos. 2511-2517. Associated with C. mirabilis. None from the clump of sphag- num moss.

    Sandy Hook, Conn.; hemlock gorge and slope to the eastward; from hemlock leaf mould and litter; June 25; four specimens; Jacot, slides 2613nl and 2614.

    Type Locality: Cliff Id., Casco Bay, Me.; Aug. 8; Jacot: from mush- rooms, etc., nine specimens (cotypes), nos. 2022nl; from spruce leaf mould, three specimens, no. 2023n2; from hair-cap moss, one specimen, no. 2025o1; Sept. 15, Jacot from decayed root, two specimens, no. 2540nl.


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    Distribution: As this species is absent from hundreds of other lots taken from southern New England, New York and southwards and in the above listed lots from southern New England, it is found in two localities which are residue Canadian Life Zone, it may be stated that as C. mirabilis is Austral so C. corae is Canadian.

    Habitat: Associated chiefly with evergreens (as is true of some of the European species) but found on various food substances.

    This species I name after Mrs. John Linton Carver whose kind hos- pitality made possible the securing of material from the Maine coast. The above mentioned material (as are the types of C. mirabilis and C. lam- ellatus) will be deposited at the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University.

    Nymph: Six nymphs, associated with both species, at Monroe, Conn., were found. Following Michael's excellent plan (1887), the sixth plate from anterior end of the lower border of the abdomen, is figured (figure 5). Comparing it with the corresponding plate of the four species described by Michael (plate 26, figs. 8-11) it will be seen to be most closely related to C. dentatus. The adults likewise are most closely related by the fine bristles about periphery of notogaster, general shape and proportions of body, recurved pseudostigmatic organ, remote interlamellar bristles, sculp- ture of notogaster. It is close to his C. cepheiformis in having the lamellae approximate at apex and the interlamellar bristles approximate to each other.


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    Cepheus corae sp. n. FIG. 1. Dorsal view showing leg I only, and part of notogastral sculpture. FIG. 2. Lateral view; sculpture of notogaster and ventral plate only indicated. FIG. 3. Pseudostigmatic organ. FIG. 4. Pseudostigmatic organ and pteromorphal ridge as seen from behind and a little

    from above. FIG. 5. Sixth plate from anterior end of lower border of abdomen of nymph. FIG. 6. Area about camerostome Cam. as seen from in front and a little from below. st.=

    sternal ridge. Ridges show as light stippling; tectopedial plates as heavy stippling. Lamellar bristles shown foreshortened above lamellae.

    Figures 1, 2, 5 and 6 drawn under occ. xlO and 16mm. obj. giving ratio 100; Figure 4, " " " " " 8mm. " " " 200; Figure 3, 6 " " " " " 4mm. " " " 440.


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    Article Contentsp.262p.263p.264p.265p.266p.267p.268p.270p.271

    Issue Table of ContentsTransactions of the American Microscopical Society, Vol. 47, No. 2 (Apr., 1928), pp. 121-274+i-viiiFront MatterThe Algal Genus Bulbochaete [pp.121-177]Studies on the Holostome Cercariae from Douglas Lake, Michigan [pp.179-221]Studies on the Morphology, Taxonomy, and Distribution of North American Triclad Turbellaria: I. Procotyla fluviatilis, Commonly but Erroneously Known as Dendrocoelum lacteum [pp.222-255]Paramecium woodruffi, n. sp. (Protozoa, Ciliata) [pp.256-261]Cepheus (Oribatoidea), Especially in the Eastern United States [pp.262-271]Department of Methods and ReviewsA Note on the Use of "Cellophane" as a Cover-Glass and a Camphor-Sandarac Mounting Medium [pp.272-273]

    Book Reviewsuntitled [p.273]untitled [p.274]untitled [p.274]

    Back Matter [pp.i-viii]


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